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BIOSCIENCES & AGRICULTURE ADVANCEMENT SOCIETY 

MEERUT 




HORTFLORA RESEARCH SPECTRUM 

Volume 1(3), July-September, 2012 



ISSN : 2250-2823 



Contents 



1. Dynamics of Tree-Crop Interface in Relation to their 
Influence on Microclimatic Changes — A Review 

2. Seed Germination of Fruit Crops : A Review 

3. Response of Bio-Organic Nutrition on Growth, Yield and 
Quality of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera Dunal.) 

4. Path Analysis between Fruit Yield and some Yield 
Components in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) 

5. Effect of Chemicals on Shelf Life and Quality of Guava 
(Psidium guajava) Fruits cv. Apple Colour 

6. Effect of Ethrel on Post Harvest Changes in Papaya 
(Carica papaya L.) Fruits 

7. Fruit Yield and Quality of Peach (Primus persica Batsch.) 
as Influenced by Differential Application of Zinc 

8. Extending Harvesting Period of Litchi (Litchi chinensis 
Sonn.) Through Chemicals Application 

9. Interaction Effect of Chemical and Bio-Fertilizers on 
Growth and Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L.) 

10. Integrated Nutrient Management in Garden Pea (Pisum 
sativum var. hortense) 

1 1 . Genetic Variability, Heritability and Correlation Studies 
in Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) 

12. Effect of Calcium Nitrate on Physico-Chemical Changes 
and Shelf-Life of Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) 
Fruits 

13. Evaluation of Ivy Gourd (Coccinia cordifolia L.) 
Genotypes in Allahabad Agro-Climatic Condition 

14. Study on Post-Harvest Life of Cut Rose cv. First Red as 
Affected by Different Chemicals and Wrapping Materials 

1 5 . Faba Bean : Unique Germplasm Explored and Identified 

16. Response of Different Spacing and Salicylic Acid Levels 
on Growth and Flowering of Gladiolus (Gladiolus 
grandiflora L.) 

17. Economics of Production and Marketing of Okra in 
District Bijnor (U.P.) 

18. Identification of Faba Bean (Viciafaba L.) Lines Suitable 
for Rainfed and Irrigated Situation 

19. Effect of Foliar Application of Zinc and Boron on Yield 
and Fruit Quality of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) 

20. Response of Gibberellic acid on Growth Behaviour and 
Menthol Oil Yield of Mentha (Mentha piperita L.) 

21. Response of Gerbera Varieties against Powdery Mildew 
Disease Under Polyhouse Condition 



Anil Kumar Singh, Pravesh Kumar, Renu Singh, 193-198 
and Nidhi Rathore 

Rajech Kumar, K.K. Misra, D.S. Misra and 199-207 
Manoj Brijwal 

Naresh Kumar, Vijai Kumar and M.C. Singh 208-214 

Madhurina Manna and Amitava Paul 215-219 
Praveen Kumar Nishad, Balaji Vikram and V.M. Prasad HO-llA 

Priyanka Singh, Sanjay Kumar and Sutanu Maji 225-230 

A.S. Sidhu, B.S. Sidhu and J.S. Brar 231-234 



Mahesh Pal and D.S. Mishra 



Yogita and R.B. Ram 



235-238 



239-243 



Dharmendra Kumar Dubey, S.S. Singh, R.S. Verma and 244-247 
P.K. Singh 

Diwaker Kumar, Vijay Bahadur, S.B. Rangare and 248-252 
Devi Singh 

Santosh Gangwar, H.S. Shukla, Dheerendra Katiyar and 253-258 
Vivek Pandey 

Hitesh Nag, Devi Singh, Vijay Bahadur and J. P. Collis 259-262 

Jitendra Kumar, Anis Mirza and Krishan Pal 263-266 



Anil Kumar Singh and B.P. Bhatt 267-269 

Mani Ram, Virendra Pal, Manoj Kumar Singh and 270-273 
Mukesh Kumar 



O.P. Maurya and S.L. Pal 



274-277 



A.K. Singh, B.P. Bhatt, Santosh Kumar and 278-280 

P.K Sundram 

Nitin Trivedi, Devi Singh, Vijay Bahadur, V.M. Prasad 281-283 
and J. P. Collis 



Awadhesh Kumar, Hashim Mouzzam and 
Priyanka Singh 

Sunil Kumar, K.S. Tomar and R.C. Shakywar 



284-285 



286-288 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 193-198 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




DYNAMICS OF TREE-CROP INTERFACE IN RELATION TO THEIR 
INFLUENCE ON MICROCLIMATIC CHANGES— A REVIEW 

Anil Kumar Singh 1 , Pravesh Kumar 2 , Renu Singh 2 and Nidhi Rathore 2 

ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna-800 014 (Bihar) 
Department of Agronomy, (RGSC) Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Barkachha, 
Mirzapur (UP) 



ABSTRACT: Integration of trees with crops adds a significant element of biological diversity to 
agronomic systems and promotes sustainable, protective and productive land use. The 
biological interactions between the major components i.e., trees and crops are of primary 
importance and introduce challenges and complexities not present in sole cropping. Specifically, 
it must be demonstrated that satisfactory growth and yields of both trees and crops can be 
achieved in the microenvironment of the agroforestry land-use system that varies considerably 
with time. Compared to an open environment, the modified microclimate under trees will have 
reduced solar radiation, a lowered red: far-red light ratio, a more moderate temperature 
regime, higher humidity, lower rates of evapo-transpiration and higher soil moisture levels. All 
of these factors will change as a function of tree development and tree management practices. 
The spacing arrangement chosen for trees will also be a factor in determining how rapidly the 
changes come into play. During the establishment phase, tree shade will be minimal and have 
little significant effect on the understory companion crops. However, as the trees grow, the 
changes in the microclimate will become more pronounced, which might strongly affect the 
growth and compatibility of the understory companion crop. 



Keywords : Agroforestry, microclimate, solar radiation, energy balance. 



Agroforestry system is a complex and living 
system which integrates the trees and results in 
changes in the microclimate which in turn influence 
the growth of all components of the system. 
Agroforestry techniques were designed with the 
aim of increasing soil fertility, there is now growing 
evidence of improved soil nutrients, microclimatic 
condition and increased crop production beneath 
large isolated trees due to efficient recycling of 
nutrients. If we try to understand and predict the 
results of combining tree and crops under different 
circumstances, it is important to know the 
functioning that control these changes and to 
appropriate their potential effects on plant growth 
and development. To explain why particular 
agroforestry system work in one environment and 
not in another, and how to manage them, requires a 
better understanding in order to cover the large 
number of possible plant combinations and their 
adaptability in wide range of climate and the 
development of appropriate management practices. 
A large number of changes occur when a tree is 



introduced into a field. The combined effect of 
these changes control the energy balances of both 
the overstorey and the understorey, thus influencing 
plant water use and productivity. Temporal and 
spatial complimentarity of resource capture by tree 
and crops in a agroforestry system is a major 
determinant of the ability of the system to improve 
crop yields and overall productivity (Cannell et ah, 
7; Ong and Black, 36). Agroforestry research has 
largely concentrated on understanding above- 
ground interaction, such as light interception and 
microclimate modification (Corlet et ah, 9). To 
understand the main microclimatic effects that 
occur in tree-crop interface (agroforestry) this 
paper explains the specific microclimatic changes 
by radiation, wind, air, humidity and temperature 
and their effect on evaporation of water and growth 
in the context of agroforestry practices. 

1. Solar radiation dynamics and their influence 
on microclimate: 

In all agroforestry systems the planting of 
trees changes the average radiation incident on 



Received: 16.3.2012 Revised : 19.5.2012 Accepted : 28.6.2012 



194 



Singh et al. 



understorey plants. These changes are often considered 
a disadvantage although some authors have found that 
they are advantageous (Vandenbeldt and Williams, 38). 
Under clear sky conditions negative balance of solar 
radiation causing night time cooling of the atmosphere, 
this is because the sky is cooler than the soil or 
vegetation, however under a tree canopy downward 
long wave radiation fluxes would be similar to upward 
long wave fluxes from crops, thus rates of cooling of 
understoreys are considerably slower. This proves that 
less frost is observed under trees or in forests than in 
open fields, and may be an important function of 'shade 
tree' in coffee and tea plantations where these are 
susceptible to frost or chilling damage. When plant 
growth is not limited by water or nutrients, production 
is limited by the amount of radiant energy that foliage 
can intercept (Monteith et al, 22; Monteith, 23). 

Various studies have examined the mechanism of 
competition for light between trees and annual crops 
(Monteith et al. 22; Knowles et al, 18; Gillespie et al, 
13). Biomass growth is dependent upon the fraction of 
incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 
to 700 mm wave length) that each species intercepts 
and the efficiency with which the intercepted radiation 
is converted by photosynthesis (Ong et al, 26). These 
factors, in turn influenced by time of day aspect, 
temperature, C0 2 level, species combination, 
photosynthetic pathway (C 3 vs C 4 ), canopy structure, 
plant age and height, leaf area and angle and 
transmission and reflectance traits of the canopy 
(Brenner and Jarvis, 5; Kozlowski and Pallardy, 19). 
Shading by associated tree species has been shown to 
be a factor in reducing yield in temperate agroforestry 
systems. Low PAR levels resulting from overhead 
shading significantly reduced yield of winter wheat 
near tree row in a paulownia-winter wheat temperate 
cropping system in China (Chirko et al, 8). Nissen et 
al. (25) also reported that both shading and 
belowground competition decreased the yield of 
cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in a eucalyptus based alley 
cropping system in the Phillippines. Maize and soybean 
yields were reduced to 75% of the sole crop yield, 
respectively, when grown in alley cropping 
configurations involving popular (Populus deltoids). 



Some studies have investigated the 
physiological basis of observed yield reduction 
in response to shading in agroforestry systems 
(Jose et al, 17). Shading is known to change 
quality of light reaching the understorey 
canopy; overhead canopies absorb mostly the 
red and blue portion of the solar spectrum so 
that diffuse radiation will be richer in orange, 
yellow and green wavelengths to influence the 
amount of growth regulating amount harmones 
and thereby growth (Baraldi et al, 4). Lack of 
adequate red light is known to influence 
tillering in grasses (Davis and Simmons, 10), 
stem production in clover (Trifolium spp.) 
(Robin et al, 33), flowering (Davis and 
Simmons, 11) and other basic plant growth 
processes (Sharrow, 36). Contrary to an 
expected yield decrease in maize (a C 4 species) 
in response to shading, Gillespie et al, (13) 
reported no effect in two alley cropping 
systems in Midwestern United States. The 
researchers found that, irrespective of shading, 
no apparent yield reduction was observed when 
belowground competition for nutrient and 
water was eliminated through trenching and 
polyethylene barriers. Leihner et al, (20) also 
reported similar finding in maize and 
concluded that shading played only a minor 
role in competition at the tree crop interface. 

Positive effects of moderate shading on 
crop growth have been reported in some cases. 
Lin et al, (21) found that two native warm 
season legumes, Desmodium canescens and D. 
poniculatum, exhibited shade tolerance and had 
significantly higher dry weight at 50% and 80% 
shade than in full sunlight. Burner and Brauer 
(1) reported that orchard grass (Dactylis 
glomerata) yield across six harvests did not 
differ among loblolly pine (Pinus toeda) and 
short leaf pine (Pinus echinata) silvopastures 
compared to yield in open pastures. In another 
study of a loblolly Pine-mixed grass/forb 
silvopasture, Burner and Brauer (6) showed 
that herbage yield was unaffected at alley 



Dynamics of tree-crop interface in relation to their influence on microclimatic changes 



195 



widths of 4.9 m and above. Light transmittance was 
as high as 90 % at this spacing. Alley widths below 
4.9 m had a profound influence on light 
transmittance. 

2. Solar radiation and their influence on energy 
balance: 

Changes in wind speed and radiation caused 

by introducing tree have very important effects on 

the energy balance of the plant. Plant must lose the 

same amount of energy they absorb if they are to 

remain at a constant temperature. Although a 

certain amount of energy is stored as chemical bond 

energy, photosynthesis and physical storage of heat, 

energy is lost mainly by evaporation and 

convection (Jones, 16). Nearly all land plants have 

stomata, some species have stomata on both sides 

(amphistomatous) and others have stomata on the 

lower side only (hypostomatous). The main 

environmental variables to which stomata respond 

are to photosynthetic quantum flux density, vapour 

pressure deficit, leaf water status, leaf temperature 

and internal CO2 concentration. 

Table 1: Stomatal (gs), canopy (gc) and boundary layer 
(ga) conductances for a variety of vegetative surfaces. 



Vegetation type 


Stomatal 
conduc- 
tance 
(mm s" 1 ) 
on a leaf 
area basis 


Canopy 
conduc- 
tance 
(mm s" 1 ) 
on ground 
area basis 


Boundary 
layer 
conduc- 
tance 
(mm s" 1 ) 
on ground 
area basis 


Grassland 


10 


20 


5-20 


Agricultural crops 


20 


50 


20-50 


Plantation forest 


6 


20 


100-330 



(Source: Jarvis, 15). 

Shading by overstorey causing changes in 
stomatal conductance. Competition for water 
between overstorey and understorey changes leaf 
water status and shelter changes microclimate. So 
plants growing under tree may have different 
conductances from those grown in monoculture, 
changing their evaporation and photosynthetic 
rates. Conductance of a canopy is generally taken 
as average stomatal conductance multiplied by 
plant leaf area index. Many developmental 
processes are temperature controlled with their rate 



increasing linearly above a base temperature 
(Jones, 16). The rate of germination of millet seed, 
for example, increase linearly with soil temperature 
from 10-12°C to an optimum temperature of 32-33 
°C, then decreases linearly to a lethal temperature at 
around 48°C. It has been suggested that one of the 
major causes of improved crop growth under a 
canopy of Faidherbia albida is reduction of soil 
temperatures at the beginning of the season, as a 
result of shading of the soil by the tree canopy since 
in the semi-arid tropics soil temperatures can 
exceed 50°C (Vandenbeldt and Williams, 38). Soil 
temperature particularly affects germination and 
early growth of cereals since the meristem remains 
below ground level for the first 3 weeks of plant 
development (Ong, 28; Corlett et al, 9). Optimum 
temperatures for growth processes depend upon the 
species and process. For example, leaf extension in 
millet was found to correspond well to meristem 
temperatures, with the rate expansion decreasing 
above 32°C (Ong, 29; Terry et al, 37). However, 
optimum temperatures for grain yields and tillering 
were lower, between 20°C and 27°C (Russell et al, 
34). Temperature also affects the duration of the 
growth stages, so that advantages of faster rates of 
increase may be offset by shorter duration of that 
advantages of faster rates of increase may be offset 
by shorter duration of that growth stage (Ong and 
Monteith, 27). 

3. Influence of temperature and humidity on 
microclimatic changes 

The effect of trees on soil and air temperature 
is an important parameter for the agroforestry 
system, since the photosynthesis-respiration 
relationship, which depends largely on ambient 
temperature, playes a vital role in the accumulation 
of carbohydrate and in the control of the survival of 
crops in those systems (Sanchez, 35). Lower 
temperature beneath tree crowns may reduce water 
stress and increase biomass of below-crown species 
(Amundson et al, 1), if competition for light or soil 
moisture does not overcome the benefits of reduced 
temperature to the species beneath the tree crown. 
In an study it was found that soil and air 



1% 



Singh et al. 



temperature were, on an average 15.6 and 2.8°C 
cooler under the crown of Z. joazeiro trees, 
respectively, when compared to patches of C. 
ciliaris. In contrast, the presence oi P. juliflora trees 
had no significant effect on soil temperatures and 
contributed to a decrease of only 1 .4°C in below 
crown air temperatures. Similarly, previous studies 
have shown that soil temperature were 5 to 12°C 
lower under the crowns of Acacia tortilis and 
Adansonia digtata trees in Kenyan savannas 
(Rhoades, 32). It is reported that air temperatures 
beneath tree crowns in a seven-year old A. tortilis 
plantation during a monsoon season were 0.1 to 
2°C lower than temperature recorded in the open. 
The different effect of Z. joazeiro and P. juliflora on 
soil and air temperatures is different in crown 
structure between these two tree species. The crown 
off! juliflora intercepted only 20 to 30 % of the 
total solar radiation during the same period. 

Temperature reductions can help reduce heat 
stress of crops and/or animal in agroforestry 
systems. Crops such as cotton (Gossypium 
hirsutum) and soyabean {Glycine max) have been 
observed to have higher rates of field emergence 
when at moderate temperatures. Ramsey and Jose 
(31) in their study of a pecan (Carya illinoesis) 
cotton alley cropping system in the southern United 
States, observed earlier germination and higher 
survival rates of cotton under pecan canopy cover 
due to cooler and moisture soil conditions than in 
also system. A study in Nebraska, Midwestern 
United States, showed earlier germination, 
accelerated growth and increased yields of tomato 
(Ly copers icon esculentum) and snap bean 
(Phaseolus vulgaris) under simulated narrow alleys 
compared to wider alleys (Bagley, 2; Garrett and 
McGraw, 12). Studies on paulownia- wheat 
(Triticum aestivum) intercropping in temperate 
China have shown increased wheat quality due to 
enhanced microclimate conditions (Wang and 
Shogren, 39). 

4. Wind dynamic and their influence on micro- 
climate: 

The changes the wind pattern in a field both by 



altering the horizontal wind speed and turbulence; 
thus absorb momentum and force the air to flow 
around them. The velocity of the air flow increases 
with distance from an object that absorbs 
momentum, whether leaf or agroforest, and if the 
extent of the surface is sufficient, an air- flow profile 
develops that is characteristic of that surface. This 
characteristic profile defines the boundary layer, 
and affects the fluxes of energy and mass to and 
from the surface. A relatively simple level from 
which to start to scale up boundary layers for 
agroforests is a leaf. Boundary layer conductance at 
the agroforest scale depends on surface roughness 
(widely spaced trees are aerodynamically rougher 
than pastures), extant of surface and speed and 
turbulence of incident air flow. A characteristic 
boundary layer might develop above an extensive 
and uniform agroforestry system at around 1 m of 
characteristic boundary layer for each 200 m of 
system (Monteith et al., 24), but many agroforestry 
systems are small in extent, thus its boundary layer 
would be constantly in transition between the 
agroforest and the surrounding vegetation. 

Shelter within agroforestry system may limit 
mechanical damage or improve quality in other 
ways. Such improvements with shelter have been 
noted in various crops, e.g. more palatable pasture, 
less fibrous oats with higher protein content, higher 
sugar content in sugar beet, larger and finer tobacco 
leaves, non-spoiled asparagus, higher sugar level in 
citrus, improve flower set in avocados, and higher 
exportable crop in kiwi fruit (Baldwin, 3). Jaffe 
(14) showed mechanical rubbing of leaves 
inhibited wheat growth by 11%, considerably less 
than more sensitive crops such as maize (28%) and 
beans (45%). 

In nutshell it can be concluded that major 
interactions between tree and crop demands, better 
understanding of the behavior and management of 
agroforestry system, for example, the effect of solar 
radiation due to increased leaf area of an upper 
canopy in an agroforestry system, reduces the 
energy available for photosynthesis and 
consequently also reduces the temperatures of soil 



Dynamics of tree-crop interface in relation to their influence on microclimatic changes 



197 



and optimum for a specific plant growth process. It 
also reduce the risk of frost because of the increase 
in the downward flux of long wave radiation 
relative to an open sky, and reduces energy 
available for evaporation from soil and crop. The 
relative importance of these processes in terms of 
productivity varies between different environment 
and agroforestry systems. 

REFERENCES 

1. Amundson, R.G. Ali, A.R. and Belsky, A.J. 
(1985). Stomatal responsiveness to changing 
light intensity increases rain-use efficiency of 
below-crown vegetation in tropical savannas. J. 
Arid Environ., 29: 139-153. 

2. Bagley, W.T. (1964). Response of tomatoes and 
beans to wind break shelter. J. Soil Water 
Consent., 19: 71-73. 

3. Baldwin,C.S.(1988). The influence of field 
windbreaks on vegetable and speciality crops. 
In : Brandle, J.R., Hintz, D.L. and Sturrock, J.W. 
(eds) Windbreak Technology. Elsevier, 
Amsterdam, Neitherlands, pp. 191 -203. 

4. Baraldi, R., Bertazza, G, Bogino, J., Luna, A., 
and Bottini, R. (1 995). The effect of light quality 
on Primus cerasus II. Changes in hormone 
levels in plants grown under different light 
conditions. Photochem. Photobiol, 62: 
800-803. 

5. Brenner, A.J. and Jarvis, P.G. (1995). A heated 
leaf replica technique for determination of leaf 
boundary layer conductance in the field. Agric. 
and Forest Meteorol, 72: 261-275. 

6. Burner, D.M. and Brauer, D.K. (2003). Herbage 
response to spacing of loblolly pine trees in a 
minimal management silvopasture in 
southeastern USA. Agroforestry Syst, 57: 
69-77. 

7. Cannell, M.G.R., Van Noordwijk, M., Ong, 
C.K., (1996). The central agroforestry 
hypothesis: the trees must acquire resources that 
the crop would not otherwise acquire. 
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HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 199-207 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




SEED GERMINATION OF FRUIT CROPS : A REVIEW 

Rajesh Kumar, K.K.Misra, D.S. Misra and Manoj Brijwal 

Department of Horticulture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology,? antnagar 263145, 

India 

E-mail: rkshukla2006@gmail.com 

ABSTRACT: Seed germination is the resumption of active growth of embryo that results in the 
emergence of the young plant. Seeds of many fruit crops remain ungerminated even under 
favourable conditions. Such kind of dormancy in seeds may be due to presence of hard and 
impermeable seed coat, germination inhibitors or due to improper development of embryo. Such 
seeds may require special treatments like scarification, soaking in water, growth regulators etc. 
for overcoming dormancy. This review summarises the latest developments in seed germination 
in different fruits cops. 



Keywords: Seed, dormancy, seed germination, scar 

In recent years asexual methods of 
propagation such as wedge grafting, inarching, 
veneer grafting, forkert, patch, shield budding and 
layering have been found to be quite successful and 
their use has been advocated. However, even for 
grafting and budding seedlings have to be raised. 
Seedling trees bear fruits of variable size and 
quality but such trees are generally long-lived. For 
raising rootstocks, seeds are used to obtain 
seedlings on which the desired variety (scion) can 
be grafted. Most of the fruit crop seeds germinate 
poorly and unevenly and require more time for 
seedling emergence. The dormancy in seeds might 
be due to hard seed coat, impermeability to water 
and gases, physiological immaturity of embryo, 
deficiency of some endogenous growth promoters 
or excess of endogenous growth inhibitors. 
Different methods like water soaking, scarification 
and chemical treatments are used for breaking 
dormancy in such seeds to improve germination. 
Soaking of seeds in water promotes germination by 
softening the hard seed coat, activating the 
enzymes and diluting the effects of inhibitors. 
Duration of soaking varies from overnight to 3 or 4 
days depending on the nature of seed coat while, 
scarification is the process of injuring the hard seed 
coat by any means to accelerate the water 
absorption and to improve the gaseous exchange 
for hastening the process of germination. This can 
be achieved by mechanical scarification or by acid 



ification, growth regulators. 
scarification. In mechanical scarification, the 
surface of the seed is scratched or injured by 
rubbing against rough surface or sand paper. The 
extent of the scarification depends on the species. 
In acid scarification the seeds are dipped in 
concentrated acid for varying duration depending 
on the hardness of the seed coat. Seeds are then 
washed thoroughly in water to remove the traces of 
acid. In other instances, seeds can be pre -treated 
with some chemicals like gibberellic acid, thiourea 
and potassium nitrate to improve seed germination. 
Seeds are soaked in the aqueous solution of these 
chemicals for 12 to 48 hours before sowing. These 
chemicals are reported to have strong influence on 
the seedling growth after germination. 

Effect of Water Soaking 

Water participates in many biochemical 
reactions and serves as a medium for the life 
processes. In seeds, water is an essential factor in 
the external environment for the stimulation of 
germination. Soaking the seeds in water at room 
temperature helps in softening the seed coats, 
removal of inhibitors and reduces the time required 
for germination and increases germination 
percentage (Hartman and Kester, 10). Effect of 
different water and acid soaking periods on seed 
germination were studied in guava cv. Allahabad 
Safeda. Seeds soaked in water for 36 hours 
exhibited an increased percentage germination 
(90%) and a reduced time for seedling emergence 



Received: 16.4.2012 



Accepted: 22.5.2012 



200 



Kumar et al. 



in comparison to seeds soaked in H 2 S0 4 , HC1 and 
HN0 3 (Pandey and Singh, 23). The percentage 
germination was highest (90%) and the rate of 
germination was fastest in seeds soaked in water for 
4 days followed by 24 hours in 1000 ppm GA 3 . 
Ergostim (5% folcysteine + 0.1% folic acid) 
treatment had no effect on seed germination of 
guava (Rodriguez et al., 30). The germination of 
guava seed was improved by soaking it in tap water 
before sowing. Cold water also had a beneficial 
effect but soaking in hot water was harmful (Haq 
et al., 11). The extracted seeds of ber soaked for 24 
hours in water promoted early germination, good 
vegetative growth and higher germination 
percentage compared with sowing whole seeds 
(control). Cracked seeds exhibited better 
germination than control seeds but were not good 
as water soaked seeds (Mankar et al., 18). 

Soaking of jackfruit seeds in water for 24 
hours has been found to improve the germination 
(Singh, 33). The effects of soaking seeds in water, 
ferulic acid (10-3 M), maleic hydrazide (1000 
ppm), thiourea (1%), KH 2 P0 4 (1%), or gibberellic 
acid (100 ppm) for 24 h before sowing on jackfruit 
seed germination and seedling growth were 
studied. The highest germination percentage 
(98.0%) and coefficient of germination velocity 
(28.00) were obtained with seed soaking in 
gibberellic acid. The lowest number of days 
required for maximum germination (10.66 days) 
and the highest germination value (24.38) and stem 
diameter (2.36 cm) were obtained with soaking of 
seeds in water. The tallest plants (25.10 cm) were 
recorded for the control followed by seed soaking 
in gibberellic acid (24.90 cm) (Maiti et al, 17). 
Bael seeds were treated with different chemicals: 
concentrated H 2 S0 4 for 10 or 20 minutes, H 2 S0 4 
for 10 minutes + 1% thiourea, 100 ppmGA 3 , H 2 S0 4 
for 10 minutes + 100 ppm GA 3 , 0.5% or 1% 
thiourea, soaking in water for 24 hours and 
mechanical scarification by sand paper. Among the 
various treatments, water soaking resulted in the 
highest percentage germination (80%) which was 
closely followed by concentrated H 2 S0 4 treatment 
for 20 minutes (76%). It was least with 



concentrated H 2 S0 4 for 10 minutes + 1% thiourea 
(20%). Although water soaking resulted in the 
highest percentage of ultimate germination, 
initiation and completion of germination took 
longer than treatment with concentrated H 2 S0 4 
(Nayak and Sen, 20). Investigations on the effect of 
organic and inorganic substances on germination of 
jamun (Syzygium cumini) seeds revealed that such 
treatments had a significant effect on germination 
percentage, shoot length and root length. The 
highest germination percentages were recorded 
when seeds were treated with water for 48 h, GA 3 at 
250 ppm, hot water, cow dung for 24 hours and cow 
urine for 24 h (96.6%). The lowest percentage 
germination (56.6%) was recorded in the control. 
Shoot length was longest in the cow urine. Root 
length was longest in the GA 3 at 250 ppm treatment 
(Swamy et al., 40). The effects of soaking mango 
(var. Local, Neelum and Totapuri) seeds in tap 
water for 24 h, hot water at 60°C for 5 minutes, 
gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) at 100 or 150 ppm for 24 h, 
water for 24 h followed by GA 3 (100 or 150 ppm) 
or treatment with thiourea at 150 ppm for 24 hours 
on germination was determined. Treatment with 
thiourea (1500 ppm) and soaking for 24 h in water 
followed by soaking for 12 or 24 h in 150 ppm GA 3 
resulted in the highest germination percentage 
(Pillewan et al., 26). 

Effect of Mechanical Scarification 

After 30 days from extraction, germination 
was highest (84%) in ber seeds scarified 
mechanically, however, after 203 days; it was 
highest (88%) in seed treated with 1% potassium 
hydroxide (Ghosh and Sen, 9). Seeds of the ber 
cultivar Umran were (a) scarified with H 2 S0 4 for 6 
minutes, (b) cracked manually, (c) the kernels were 
extracted by breaking the endocarp, and (d) left 
untreated (control). The treated and control seeds 
were either sown directly or after soaking in water 
for 24 h. The shortest time taken to start 
germination (7 days), the highest final germination 
percentage (46.66%) and the best seedling growth 
were obtained when the kernels were extracted by 
breaking endocarp + water soaking. The 



Seed germination of fruit crops 



201 



corresponding control figures were 24.5 days and 
17.5 % germination (Murthy and Reddy, 19). 
Breaking of hard shell in Ber helps in early 
germination (Singh, 34). The maximum 
germination in jackfruit seeds was obtained when 
outer thin leathery seed coat was removed and 
soaked in water for 8 hours. Treatment with of 
seeds with biotin (10 ppm) and kinetin (50 ppm) 
resulted in significantly higher seed vigour index. 
Seedling growth was also better when seeds were 
soaked in 25 ppm NAA (Prakash, 27). 

A field experiment was conducted to find out 
the effect of cracking and seed coat removal on 
germination of mango seed. Intact seeds took 23.71 
and 55.21 days for the start of germination and to 
attain 50% of final germination, respectively and 
the final germination percentage was 45.71. When 
the seed coat and testa were removed before 
sowing, the seeds started germinating on the 10th 
day and reached 50% of final germination in 29.46 
days. The final germination was 78.57% (Padma 
and Reddy, 21). This experiment was conducted to 
study the effect of seed husking and soaking in GA 3 
on germination and vegetative growth parameters 
of Zebda, Sukkary, Sabre and 13-1 polyembryonic 
mango rootstocks under nursery conditions. 
Germination percentage and number of seedlings 
per seed increased with seed husking and soaking 
in GA 3 at 100 or 200 ppm concentrations for 48 
hours. The highest germination percentage and 
number of seedlings were recorded by Sabre 
rootstock meanwhile, the lowest was recorded by 
Sukkary rootstock. Seedling length, seedling 
diameter, number of leaves per seedling, leaf area 
and root length of the studied rootstocks were 
increased with seed husking and GA 3 treatments. 
The highest values of seedling length, diameter, 
leaf area and number of leaves per seedling were 
observed by Zebda and the lowest was by 13-1. 
Zebda, Sukkary and Sabre rootstocks recorded 
higher values of growth parameters than 13-1 
rootstock. Husking mango seeds and soaking them 
in GA 3 prior to sowing improved germination and 
seedling growth (Shaban, 31). In peach cv. 
Qiouxiangmi seed dormancy was broken by 



mechanical scarification, the germination rate 
being similar to the seed soaked in GA 3 to 
overcoming seed dormancy. When the seed coat of 
peach cv. GF 305 was removed a high emergence 
percentage was observed even without 
stratification (Tao and Chen, 41). The highest 
germination (67%) was obtained with fresh papaya 
seeds washed in water to remove the sarcotesta 
followed by drying in the shade for 24 hours. 
Drying in the sun was detrimental (15% 
germination compared with 59% for shade drying) 
as was a 30 minutes dip in hot water (Sippel and 
Classens, 39). 

Effect of Acid Scarification 

Scarification of seeds with concentrated acids, 
especially sulphuric acid, greatly increased 
germination of guava seeds, recording 98% 
germination. The control seeds soaked in cold 
water gave 20% germination, while pre -treatment 
with gibberellic acid gave 65% germination. Seeds 
soaked in hot water did not germinate at all (Essien, 
8). The soaking of seeds in concentrated sulphuric 
acid for 2-3 minutes was very effective for good 
germination (Pandey and Misra, 24). The acid 
scarification and boiling in hot water for 5 minutes 
of seeds shortened the time required for 
germination without any adverse effect on 
germination percentage (Hayes, 12). The soaking 
of seeds of Allahabad Safeda and Red Fleshed in 
water for 12-72 hour and in sulphuric acid, 
hydrochloric acid and nitric acids for 3-12 minutes. 
Soaking in water for 12 hours and in hydrochloric 
acid for 3 minutes improved the germination 
percentage to over 90%, compared with 58% for 
untreated control (Singh and Soni, 35). Seeds (from 
ripe fruits) placed in plastic bags were stratified at 
5°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 days or they were scarified 
either by immersion in concentrated sulphuric acid 
for 15 minutes or by abrasion with sand for 15 
minutes. After treatment, the seeds were 
germinated at a constant 25°C or at room 
temperature, either on paper or in sand. A 
combination of scarifying in sand and germinating 



202 



Kumar et al. 



in sand gave the best total germination (98.15%). 
Germination generally occurred between 8 and 11 
days after sowing (Tavares et al., 42). Seeds of 
guava were subjected to ten different treatments 
namely, naked seeds, 24 hours water soaking, 48 
hours water soaking, 24 hours hot water (40°C) 
soaking, 24 hours hot water (5% sulphuric acid) 
soaking, 24 hours water leaching, 24 hours 
gibberellic acid (100 ppm) soaking, seed scrapping 
and seed coat breaking. In case of Indian Olive and 
Jujube, besides the above treatments additional 
treatments of seeds with flesh were considered. 
Observation indicated that acid treated seeds 
showed best performance in respect of seed 
germination and seedling vigour. While with Jujube 
and Indian Olive scrapped seeds and 24 hours water 
soaked seeds showed best performance (Rahman 
and Quadir, 28). The effects of seed size (small, 
medium and large) and pre-sowing treatment 
(soaking in H 2 S0 4 for 10 minutes then washing 
with water, soaking in H2SO4 for 10 minutes then in 
1% thiourea for 12 hours, mechanical cracking of 
seeds, chilling for 24 hours in the refrigerator and 
soaking in water for 24 hours, control) on the seed 
germination and seedling growth of ber were 
studied. The greatest seed germination was 
obtained with the use of medium seeds (50.93%) 
and treatment with H 2 S0 4 for 10 minutes (54.22%). 
The mechanical cracking of seeds resulted in the 
lowest number of days to germination (23.66 days). 
The tallest seedlings were obtained with medium 
seeds (25.26 cm) and water-soaked seeds (26.33 
cm). Water-soaked seeds and large seeds gave the 
greatest stem diameters (0.54 and 0.51 cm, 
respectively) (Singh et al, 36). Seeds of the ber cv. 
Local Desi Gola were soaked in water for 48 hours 
(control) or in concentrated sulphuric acid for 3-15 
minutes. The seeds were sown at monthly intervals 
between 20 March and 20 July. Soaking in acid for 
6 minutes and sowing on 20 May gave the highest 
germination (90%). The diameter of the seedling 
stem (15 cm above ground) at 90 days after sowing 
was greatest (0.74 cm) after soaking in acid for 6 
minutes and sowing on 20 April (Singhrot and 



Makhija, 38). Ber seeds were soaked in sulphuric 
acid for 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 minutes or in water for 48 
hours. Unsoaked seeds were used as a control. 
Seeds were sown in the 1 st week of January, March 
or June at a depth of 2, 4 or 6 cm. Transplanting was 
carried out at the 2, 4, 6 or 8 leaf stage. Budding 
was done 90 days after sowing on seedlings that 
were 0.53, 0.65 or 0.75 cm in diameter at a height of 
10, 20 or 30 cm above ground level. The 6 minutes 
soak in sulphuric acid resulted in highest 
percentage germination at all sowing dates 
(36.6-71.3%). Germination success increased from 
January to June and decreased with increasing 
depth of sowing. Budding success decreased with 
increasing plant diameter and budding height, 
greatest budding success (93.5%) was obtained 
with 0.53 cm diameter seedlings budded at 10 cm 
above ground level (Chattopadhyay and Dey, 4). 

Effect of Chemical Treatment 

Plant hormones play a key role in fruit crop 
production by influencing directly or indirectly 
various plant processes like germination, rooting, 
growth and productivity. The some plant growth 
regulators have been helpful in gennination of 
guava seeds by increasing water uptake and 
exerting an effect on membrane permeability. 
These results indicate that use of plant growth 
regulator might have helped to break the embryo 
dormancy and induction of synthesis of alpha 
amylase and other hydrolytic enzymes (Looney, 
16). The pre-sowing soaking improved seed 
germination of guava seeds up to 60% with GA 3 
100 ppm in comparison to 46% in untreated seeds 
(Kumar et al, 15). Seeds of guava cv. Allahabad 
Safeda were treated by soaking in water for 24 h, in 
boiling water for 3 minutes, in GA 3 , Ethrel or 
Thiourea for 12 hours or in concentrated HC1 or 
H2SO4 for 3 minutes. Seeds were then washed with 
distilled water before sowing in polyethylene bags. 
Maximum germination, 6 weeks after sowing was 
obtained with seeds soaked in 3000 ppm GA 3 
(83.2%) followed by seeds soaked in water 
(80.1%). These results were significantly higher 



Seed germination of fruit crops 



203 



than those obtained with other treatments and with 
untreated controls (53.0%). Soaking seeds in 3000 
ppm GA 3 also resulted in the greatest plant height, 
number of leaves/plant and leaf size recorded 5 
months after sowing. Seed treatment with boiling 
water was lethal (Chandra and Govind, 3). The 
highest germination rates after 1 and 17 months 
from ber seeds treated with 200 ppm GA 3 (98.76 
and 77.82 %, respectively) (Hore and Sen, 13). The 
effects of seed treatments viz., soaking in 100 ppm 
gibberellic acid, 1% thiourea, 1000 ppm maleic 
hydrazide, 1% potassium orthophosphate and 10-3 
M ferulic acid for 12 hours, on the germination and 
growth of jackfruit. The highest germination 
percentage (95.33%) and coefficient of velocity of 
germination (27.67), tallest plants (26.78 cm), 
shortest span of germination (13 days) and fastest 
germination (average of 3.61 days) were recorded 
for 100 ppm GA. (Singh et al, 37) concluded that 
treatment of seeds with 1000 ppm maleic hydrazide 
gave the highest stem diameter (2.56 cm). Seeds of 
a local jackfruit cultivar were used fresh or stored at 
6°C for 15 days. Seeds were then soaked in 
solutions of NAA (10, 25 or 50 ppm) or GA 3 (50, 
100 or 250 ppm) or in distilled water (control) for 
24 h before being sown. Growth regulator treatment 
did not affect percentage germination, time taken 
for germination or survival percentage of seedlings 
in the field. Fresh seeds had a higher percentage 
germination (66.0 vs. 62.1%), more rapid 
germination (15.1 vs. 16.7 days) and higher 
seedling survival percentage in the field (63.9 vs. 
59.6%) than stored seeds (Chiesotsu et al, 5). 

Karonda seeds, treated with GA 3 at 25-100 
ppm for 24 h, were planted and germination was 
assessed 43, 50 and 58 days later. Germination after 
43 days was 0.4% in the control and 1 .6-6.8% in the 
treated seeds. On the 58 th day control germination 
was 49.2% and in seeds treated with GA 3 at 25 ppm 
it was 67.0%. This treatment (Bankar, 1) also gave 
good seedling vigour (19.6 cm high compared with 
12.2 cm in the control). Papaya seeds collected 
from unripe fruits in Somalia were submitted to 



various treatments. They were desiccated in the sun 
or in the shade for 3, 6, 9, 12 or 15 days and then 
stored in paper bags at 20°C for 2 months. The 
effects of removing the sarcotesta and soaking in 
300 ppm GA 3 for 24h were examined. Germination 
percentage increased in seeds desiccated in the 
shade and treated with GA 3 while average 
germination time decreased as the duration of the 
desiccation increased in seeds deprived of their 
sarcotesta and treated with GA 3 (Bertocci et al, 2). 
Aonla seeds were soaked in distilled water, 250, 
500 or 750 ppm GA 3 or 250, 500 or 750 ppm 
thiourea prior to germination in Petri dishes. 
Controls received no soaking treatment. The 
highest percentage germination (75.98% after 35 
days, compared with 50.76% in controls) was 
obtained in the 250 ppm GA 3 treatment. This 
treatment also resulted in the greatest plumule and 
radicle lengths (11.56 and 5.97 cm, respectively, 35 
days after sowing) but the thiourea treatments 
resulted in the most roots/seedling, the highest 
number (3.60, 35 days after sowing) being obtained 
in the 750 ppm treatment (Dhankhar et al, 6). 
Seeds of Aonla were soaked for 12 h in 100-400 
ppm gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) or water, or not soaked 
(controls). Treatment with 400 ppm GA 3 resulted in 
the highest percentage germination (87.25%, 
compared with 56% and 46.25% in seeds soaked in 
water and controls, respectively). Seedling 
development (plant height, number of leaves/plant 
and root development) was best following seed 
treatment with 400 ppm GA 3 (Wagh et al, 43). 
Aonla (cv. Gujarat Aonla 1) seeds were treated with 
250, 500 or 750 ppm gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) or 
thiourea. Seed germination was earliest and 
percentage germination was highest (75.98% and 
64.14% in the laboratory and in pots) in seeds 
treated with 250 ppm GA 3 . This treatment also gave 
the best results in terms of plumule and radicle 
length, seedling height (28.84 cm 75 days after 
sowing), seedling girth (0.90 cm 75 days after 
sowing) and seedling fresh and dry weight. 
Treatment with 750 ppm thiourea resulted in the 
highest number of roots (Dhankhar et al, 7). The 



204 



Kumar et al. 



effect of pre-germination seed treatments on the 
germination and vigour of Aonla seeds were 
studied. The treatments included gibberellic acid 
(GA 3 ) at 50 and 100 ppm, soaking in water for 24 
hours and hot water soaking at 60°C for 5 minutes. 
GA 3 at 50 and 100 ppm increased the percentage 
seed germination. The tallest plants were obtained 
following seed treatment with 100 ppm GA 3 and 
soaking for 24 hours (Pawshe et al., 25). 

The effect of seed treatments with growth 
regulators (250 and 500 ppm GA 3 , 250 and 500 
ppm thiourea), chemicals (sulphuric acid) and 
distilled water on seed germination of wild ber 
(Zizyphus nummularia) were studied and the 
highest percentage of seed germination was 
recorded with 500 ppm GA 3 . A maximum plant 
height (34.39 cm), plant girth (1.43 cm) and 
internode length (1.40 cm) were recorded with 250 
ppm GA 3 . In a related study, the combined effect of 
seed treatments and foliar applications of growth 
regulators GA 3 and maleic hydrazide (MH) at 50 
ppm) on seedling growth of wild ber was assessed. 
Foliar spray of 50 ppm GA 3 on seedlings obtained 
from different seed soaking treatments accelerated 
seedling vigour. GA 3 gave maximum plant height 
(56.29 cm), plant girth (2.75 cm) and internode 
length (2.69 cm). Foliar spray of 50 ppm MH 
reduced plant height and internode length (Rajwar 
et al., 29). The combined effect of stratification 
with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 2 ) or gibberellic acid 
(GA 3 ) pre-treatments on seed germination in peach 
and three different wild almond species (Prunus 
scoparia, Primus communis, and Prunus 
haussknechtii) was investigated by Imani et al., 
(14). Seeds with shells were rinsed three times for 2 
minutes each in sterile distilled water and then 
imbibed for 24 hours in either distilled water 
(control), H 2 2 (0.5 and 1%, 24 h) or GA 3 (250 and 
500 ppm, 30 min). Treated seeds were then 
stratified at 7°C for 1 to 9 weeks. The number of 
germinated seeds was recorded weekly for each 
species. There were significant differences in the 
percentage and time of seed germination between 



species and treatments although germination was 
earlier and more uniform in the treated seeds in 
comparison with the control in all species. The 
most effective pre-treatments for breaking 
donnancy during subsequent stratification were 
0.5% H 2 2 (Prunus scoparia), 500 ppm GA 3 
(Prunus haussknechtii) and 250 ppm GA 3 (Prunus 
persica) Zhang and Xia (44) carried out an 
experiment with seeds of Prunus persica collected 
from wild trees. Before stratification, seeds were 
separately soaked in water with different 
concentrations of GA for 2 and 4 days. All 
concentrations of GA promoted seed germination. 
Germination increased by 15% after soaking in 
1500 mg GA/ml for 4 days (Zhang and Xia, 44). 
The effects of gibberellic acid (GA) and ethrel on 
sapota cv. Kalipatti seed germination and seedling 
growth. Cracked seeds were soaked for 24 h in 1 00 
ml solution on GA, ethrel and GA+ethrel (at 200, 
300 and 400 ppm). Pre-soaking of seeds in GA at 
400 ppm+ethrel at 400 ppm resulted in high (90%) 
and early (12.15 days) germination and the highest 
emergence rate. Seedlings raised from seeds 
presoaked on 400 ppm GA 3 produced the highest 
shoot and root length. The number of leaves per 
seedling and seedling vigour were highest in 
seedlings raised from seeds pre-soaked in GA + 
ethrel (Pampanna and Sulikeri, 22). The effect of 
pre-soaking treatments, application of growth 
promoting substances and method and season of 
grafting on seed germination and growth 
enhancement of Khirnee rootstock and graft 
success in sapota. To improve the seed germination 
of Khirnee rootstock, seeds were subjected to 
pre-soaking treatments for 24 h in gibberellic acid 
(GA 3 ) at 100 and 200 ppm, thiourea and KN0 3 , 
each at 1 and 2%, cow dung slurry and water. 
Pre-soaking of Khirnee seeds in cow dung slurry 
for 24 h resulted in the highest (66.83%) seed 
germination. To enhance the growth rate of Khirnee 
seedlings to attain graftable size rootstock, an 
experiment was carried out, consisting of GA 3 at 
100 and 200 ppm, extracts of neem cake, Pongamia 
and cow dung, vermicompost (Vermiwash), 



Seed germination of fruit crops 



205 



triacontanol at 0.1 and 0.2% and a control. Khirnee 
seedlings sprayed with GA 3 at 200 ppm on the 3 r 
and 6 th months enhanced the seedling growth 
(Shirol et al, 32). 

Future Aspects 

To meet the growing demand of planting 
material (grafts), nursery man has to produce more 
number of rootstocks with graftable size in a shorter 
time. It is, therefore, highly essential to accelerate 
the seed germination and growth of seedlings with 
pre-sowing treatments to attain graftable size 
earlier and reduce the nursery cost. Therefore, 
enhancement of seed germination is important in 
propagation and breeding programmes, as well as 
for testing and using germplasm. In this aspect 
pre-sowing treatments seems to be the most 
promising in many fruit species. Therefore, it can 
be concluded that pre-sowing treatments are 
effective to get higher germination and better 
seedling growth of fruit crops. 

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37. Singh, D.K., Bhattacharya, B. and Mondal, K. 
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Solo seed. Inligtings bulletin Instituut vir 
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HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 208-214 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




RESPONSE OF BIO-ORGANIC NUTRITION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND 
QUALITY OF ASHWAGANDHA {Withania somnifera Dunal.) 

Naresh Kumar, Vijai Kumar and M.C. Singh 1 

Ch. Shivnath Singh Shandilya( P.G.) College, Machhra, Meerut, UP.-250 106 
'Division of Floriculture & Landscaping, IARI, Pusa Campus, New Delhi 
E-mail maresh 1 47 3@rediffinail.com 

ABSTRACT : In an experiment conducted on ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal), to 
study the response of different organic amendments with organic manure (FYM) and 
bio-fertilizers in relation to plant growth, root yield and quality parameters it was found that the 
seedlings (5-7 leaf stage) inoculated with Azospirillum @ 10 5 or 10 6 CFU resulted a significant 
increase in plant growth and biomass yield. However, the root and seed yields were observed 
higher in the plants planted in soil amended with vermi-compost and FYM @ 2 or 3 kg / 1.8 m 2 
/plot. The plant height varied significantly among all the treated plots but remain taller (24.80 cm) 
in plots treated @ 2kg FYM having maximum stem diameter (0.48 cm) at 30 DAP (days after 
planting) and highest numbers of leaves per plant (438) after reaching 75 DAP followed by 
seedling treated with Azospirillum @ 10 6 CFU. However, the lowest number of leaves per plant 
(97.4) was observed in the plants grown in plots amended vermi-compost @ 2kg / plot. Number 
of branches per plant remained highest (51 .0) with plants treated with Azospirillum @ 10 6 CFU, 
soil amended with vermi-compost @ 2kg and FYM @ 3 kg/ plot followed by plants grown with 
Azospirillum @ 10 5 CFU (46.0). Whereas, the plants grown in plots amended without FYM 
produced least number of branches (21.2) even at 75 DAP. Fresh root weight per plant was 
observed maximum (24.0 g) in the plants amended with vermi-compost @ 2kg and FYM @ 
3kg/plot and inoculated with Azospirillum @ 10 6 CFU. However, the dry weight of the roots 
remained highest ( 7.6g /plant) in the plants treated with FYM @ 3kg , vermi-compost @ 2 kg / 
plot and inoculated with Azospirillum @ 10 5 CFU. 



Withania, seeds, root, alkaloid, withanaloid. 



Keywords 

India is known as a treasure house of 
medicinal and aromatic plants for ages. Medicinal 
plants have been classified as trees, shrubs, woody 
perennials, annuals and biennials, and climbers. 
Their distribution spreads all over India, 
Baluchistan, and Punjab and in Sind in the Indian 
sub-continents. Several of these grow abundantly in 
the drier parts of India ascentily to 5500 ft in 
Himalayas. Among the perennials, Ashwagandha is 
very well adapted to grow under subtropical and 
dry climate in well drained, sandy loam or light red 
soils having ph of 7.5 to 8.0 with an average rainfall 
of 600-750 mm. Ashwagandha is being cultivated 
on large scale as medicinal plant, especially on 
marginal lands in several districts of Madhya 
Pradesh, covering an area of more than 4000 
hectares (Nigam, 8). In the recent years, cultivation 
of Ashwagandha has been extended to the areas of 
Kota in Rajasthan, foot-hills of Punjab and 



Himachal Pradesh and Tarai regions of Uttarakhand 
and Uttar Pradesh. Commercial cultivation, being 
on priority for high returns needs a sustained and 
agronomic package for production of economically 
safe raw material for pharmaceutical industry on 
large scale. Owing to the increased demand for 
organic and safe products in the market as 
ashwagandha roots, leaves and seeds are used in 
formulation of various Ayurvedic and Unani 
medicines, there is prudent to cultivate this crop 
with an application of Vermi-compost and FYM 
along with a beneficial free-living soil bacteria 
usually applied as plant growth promoting 
Rhizobacteria or PGPR in the formulation as 
strains of Azospirillum, which lives in close 
association of plant roots and enhance plant growth 
by its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, 
production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, 
nitrate and single molecules resulting in an 



Received : 22.4.2012 



Accepted: 21.5.2012 



Response of bio-organic nutrition on growth, yield and quality of Ashwagandha 



209 



increased mineral uptake in the plant roots (Bashan 
and Holguin, 4). 

It has been proven that various strains of 
Azospirillum are capable of promoting the yield of 
economically important medicinal and aromatic 
crops in different soils and climatic regions, using 
various strains of A. brasilense and A. lipoferum 
and cultivars of different species of plants (Bashan 
and Levanony, 3). Several field experiments have 
revealed a significant increase in different plant 
growth parameters including grain yield recorded 
under all levels of treatments of nitrogen due to 
Azospirillum inoculations over those un-inoculated 
and proved the importance of use of bio-fertilizer 
(Okon and Labandera-Gonzalez, 10). In 
Azospirillum application has also increased the 
nitrogen availability in soil through biological 
nitrogen fixation resulting in the promotion of cell 
division and synthesis of organic compounds in 
leaves, ultimately increasing the biomass and root 
yield (Arul, 2) and consequent increase in total 
alkaloid content in various plant parts including 
roots (Srivastava et al. 15). 

The application of inorganic nutrients may not 
significantly influence the various economic traits 
in contradiction due to the fact that biosynthesis of 
secondary metabolites is under genetic control to 
influence plant growth and seed yield in various 
responsive crops including Ashwagandha as 
reported by Umrao et al. (16) but the development 
of a reliable and consistent inoculation technology 
determines that the application of Azospirillum, 
FYM and Vermi-compost, interaction beneficial 
with regards to a biological model for fundamental 
studies on symbiotic associations between them to 
have a significant impact in future agricultural 
production. Therefore, the present experiment was 
conducted to see and evaluate a response of 
bio-organic nutrition through a application of 
FYM, Vermi-compost and Azospirillum in 
Ashwagandha {Withania sominifera Dunal.). 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The present experiment was carried out at the 



experimental fields of Ch. Shivnath Singh 
Shandilya (P.G.) College, Machhra, Meerut (U.P) 
during the two consecutive years viz. 2005-06 and 
2006-07 on Ashwagandha {Withania somnifera) cv. 
Jawahar-20 under the field conditions using of 
FYM (Farm Yard Manure), Vermi-compost and 
Azospirillum. The experiment was laid out in the 
factorial RBD under three replications. The 
ingredients of experimental field were kept in the 
combinations comprising of FYM, (0 kg/plot (F ), 
2 kg/plot (F|) or 3 kg/plot (F 3 ), Vermi-compost 
kg/plot (V ), 2 kg/plot (Vj) or 3 kg/plot (V 2 ) and 
Azospirillum CFU/plot (AZ ), 10 5 CFU/plot 
(AZj) or 10 6 CFU/plot (AZ 2 ). 

Extraction of total alkaloid and withanaloid 
content was done employing the 'Gravimetric 
method taking a sample of 1 g of fine powdered 
roots in methanol immersed in 'Soxhlet Apparatus' 
for 6 h. After removal of the methanol from the 
flask a residue was then filtered with N/2 H2SO4 
consequently, five times and brought to 7 pH by 
adding 20% KOH solution @ 11.5 pH. The 
resultant residue was washed out to diluted 
chloroform to purify available alkaloid content and 
finally the left over chloroform layer was 
water-distilled by rejecting the aqueous solution. 
Alkaloid and withanaloid (%) were pre -weighed 
and dried to a constant weight; and finally recorded 
as total withanaloid content. The package and 
practices of cultivation under experimental field 
were followed as per standard recommendations. 
The data on plant growth, yield and quality 
parameters were analyzed for least errors by the 
methods as suggested by Panse and Sukhatme (11). 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

The results obtained from the investigations 
carried out on ashwagandha cv Jawahar-20 to study 
the response of bio-organic nutrition employing an 
admixture of Vermi-compost and FYM @ 2, 3 
kg/plot, respectively and plants inoculated with 
Azospirillum @ 10 5 and 10 6 CFU before 
transplanting revealed that all the plant growth, root 
yield and quality parameters differed significantly 
among plots amended with bio-organic 



210 



Kumar et al. 



amendments. The plant height was recorded 
maximum (84.4 cm) in the plants treated with 
Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plots, FYM @ 2 kg/plot 
and inoculated with Azospirillum @ 1 6 CFU and 
minimum (58.9 cm) in the plants applied with 
Vermi-compost @ 3 kg and FYM @ 2 kg per plot 
without inoculation of Azospirillum (Table 1). Stem 
diameter was maximum (0.815 cm)in the plants 
treated with Vermi-compost @ 3 kg per plot and 
FYM @ 3 kg/plot and inoculated with Azospirillum 
@ 10 5 CFU whereas, minimum (0.54 cm) applied 
with Vermi-compost @ 2 kg/plot without FYM 
applied and inoculation of Azospirillum. Number of 
leaves/plant was recorded maximum (384.4) in the 
plants treated with Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot, 
FYM @ 2 kg/plot and an inoculation of plant with 
Azospirillum @ 106 and minimum (160.1) in the 
plants inoculated with Azospirillum @ 105. 
However, untreated plants recorded (124.2 leaves), 
significantly higher than the lower value. Number 
of branches recorded was maximum (45.6) in the 
plants treated with Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot, 
FYM @ 2 kg per plot and Azospirillum @ 10 5 
inoculation and minimum (21.1) in the plant 
applied with Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot and an 
inoculation of Azospirillum @ 10 6 CFU without 
FYM application. Plant canopy (cm 2 ) was recorded 
maximum (4.165 cm 2 ) in the plants grown after 
inoculation with Azospirillum @ 10 6 CFU alone 
and minimum (2.075 cm 2 ) in the plants raised in the 
plots amended with FYM @ 3 kg/plot and an 
inoculation of plants with Azospirillum @ 10 5 . Leaf 
area (cm 2 ) recorded was maximum (67.43 cm 2 ) in 
the plants treated with Vermi-compost @ 3 kg, 
FYM @ 3 kg each per plot and inoculated with 
Azospirillum @ 10 5 and minimum (33.36 cm 2 ) in 
plants grown with plots amended with 
Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot and inoculated with 
Azospirillum @ 1 6 CFU without FYM application. 
Number of berries/plant was recorded maximum 
(115.4) in the plants grown in the plots amended 
with Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot, FYM @ 2 kg/plot 
and inoculated with Azospirillum @ 10 5 CFU 
whereas, minimum (19.5) was recorded in 
untreated plants which remained at par (21.2) with 



those inoculated with Azospirillum @ 105 alone. 
Number of seeds/berry was recorded maximum 
(46.8) in plants treated with Azospirillum @ 10 5 
alone without the application of admixture of 
Vermi-compost and FYM and minimum (27.6) in 
the plants raised in the plots amended with 
Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot, FYM @ 2 kg/plot and 
inoculation with Azospirillum @ 10". Main root 
length per (Table 2) plant was noted maximum 
(20.9 cm) in the plots treated with FYM @ 3 
kg/plot and plants inoculated with Azospirillum @ 
10 6 CFU without an amendment of the soil plots 
with Vermi-compost and minimum (12.6 cm) in the 
plant treated with FYM @ 3 kg/plot and 
inoculation of plants with Azospirillum @ 10 5 . 
Number of primary roots/plant was recorded 
maximum (5.3) in the plants grown in the beds 
admixed with Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot, FYM @ 
2 kg/plot and inoculated with Azospirillum @ 10 5 
whereas, minimum (1.55) in the plants treated with 
FYM @ 2 kg/plot and inoculated with Azospirillum 
@ 10 6 . Number of secondary roots was noted 
maximum (6.6) in the plants treated with 
Vermi-compost applied @ 2 kg/plot and inoculated 
with Azospirillum @ 1 6 without the application of 
FYM. However, a minimum secondary roots (3.7) 
were noted for the plants grown in the beds 
amended with Vermi-compost @ 2 kg/plot and 
FYM @ 2 kg/plot. Secondary root length was 
recorded maximum (7.07 cm) in the plants treated 
with Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot and FYM 2 
kg/plot and inoculated with Azospirillum @ 10 5 and 
minimum (3.41 cm) in the plants treated with 
Vermi-compost @ 2 kg/plot and FYM @ 2 kg/plot. 

Fresh root weight/plant (Table 2) was obtained 
maximum (28 g) in the plants treated with 
Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot and FYM @ 3 kg/plot 
and an inoculation of Azospirillum @ 10 5 and 
minimum (11.75 g) with plants administered soil 
beds with Vermi-compost @ 2 kg/plot alone. Dry 
root weight/plant was obtained maximum (7.47 g) 
from the plants grown in beds applied with 
Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot and FYM 2 kg/plot and 
inoculation of Azospirillum @ 10 5 CFU. Whereas, 



Response of bio-organic nutrition on growth, yield and quality of Ashwagandha 211 

Table 1: Plant growth, flowering and seed yield parameters of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal.) as influenced 
by different bio-organic treatments. 



Treatment 


Plant 

height 

(cm) 


Stem 

diameter 

(cm) 


Number 

of 
leaves/ 
plant 


Number 

of 

branches 

/plant 


Plant 
canopy 

(WxL, 

cm 2 ) 


Leaf 
area 

(cm 2 ) 


No. of 

berries/ 

plant 


No. of 
seeds/ 
berry 


V F„ AZ 


59.50 


0.635 


124.20 


37.00 


3.465 


51.53 


19.50 


29.90 


V F AZ, 


61.50 


0.675 


160.10 


27.80 


2.550 


59.04 


21.20 


46.80 


V F„ AZ 2 


64.00 


0.740 


189.70 


36.10 


4.165 


59.30 


43.60 


37.30 


V Fi AZ 


67.20 


0.660 


201.00 


38.50 


3.875 


52.43 


62.70 


33.90 


V Fi AZ, 


66.80 


0.700 


239.20 


22.70 


3.190 


50.84 


45.70 


28.80 


V Fi AZ 2 


67.00 


0.675 


257.20 


41.60 


2.980 


56.30 


32.50 


37.20 


V F 2 AZ„ 


60.00 


0.660 


227.60 


36.30 


3.080 


54.22 


35.65 


33.20 


V F 2 AZ, 


64.40 


0.670 


236.40 


27.80 


2.075 


40.57 


62.00 


34.50 


V F 2 AZ 2 


65.80 


0.615 


262.40 


26.40 


2.955 


56.46 


80.80 


35.80 


V, F„ AZ 


59.00 


0.540 


266.30 


24.00 


2.620 


44.93 


72.60 


28.90 


V, F„ AZ, 


63.50 


0.640 


267.80 


29.00 


2.590 


51.45 


21.30 


28.10 


V, F„ AZ 2 


69.00 


0.690 


276.80 


30.10 


3.806 


47.10 


35.80 


42.10 


V, F, AZ 


74.70 


0.615 


290.20 


41.10 


2.380 


62.28 


49.00 


28.10 


V, F, AZ, 


79.10 


0.675 


315.10 


30.40 


3.175 


54.34 


41.50 


30.50 


V, F, AZ 2 


80.00 


0.730 


370.90 


30.80 


3.455 


50.23 


37.30 


34.20 


V, F 2 AZ„ 


72.00 


0.705 


280.20 


34.90 


3.660 


57.73 


40.40 


37.20 


V, F 2 AZ, 


77.50 


0.730 


365.60 


25.70 


3.505 


52.30 


65.60 


28.60 


V, F 2 AZ 2 


72.00 


0.685 


383.10 


21.20 


3.560 


42.31 


46.50 


31.60 


V 2 F AZ„ 


72.40 


0.685 


299.30 


29.80 


3.410 


54.52 


107.40 


29.80 


V 2 F AZ, 


69.90 


0.590 


302.80 


29.00 


2.415 


40.22 


45.00 


31.30 


V 2 F„ AZ 2 


71.00 


0.635 


311.70 


21.10 


2.085 


33.36 


88.90 


31.50 


V, F, AZ 


58.90 


0.620 


321.90 


22.20 


2.885 


56.22 


52.30 


35.10 


V 2 F, AZ, 


81.00 


0.730 


378.10 


45.60 


2.670 


62.82 


115.40 


27.60 


V 2 F, AZ 2 


84.40 


0.780 


384.40 


40.90 


2.755 


51.33 


90.70 


33.50 


V 2 F 2 AZ 


72.60 


0.740 


335.00 


39.90 


4.155 


50.86 


97.60 


32.00 


V 2 F 2 AZ, 


80.20 


0.815 


365.70 


35.40 


3.720 


67.43 


98.50 


35.80 


V 2 F 2 AZ 2 


79.20 


0.740 


341.70 


36.50 


3.150 


44.57 


75.40 


32.00 


Mean 
LSD (5%) 
P (0.001) 


70.096 

4.899 

** 


0.680 

0.055 
** 


287.200 

40.174 

** 


31.918 

5.342 
** 


3.123 

0.641 

** 


52.025 

6.331 

** 


58.698 
6.821 

** 


33.159 
4.430 

** 



V = Vermi-compost 
V, = Vermi-compost 
V 2 = Vermi-compost 



(Control) 
(2 kg/plot) 
(3 kg/plot) 



F = FYM (Control) 
F, = FYM (2 kg/plot) 
F 2 = FYM (3 kg/plot) 



Az = Azospirillum (Control) 
Az, = Azospirillum (10 5 CFU) 
Az 2 = Azospirillum (10 6 CFU) 



212 



Kumar et al. 



minimum (2.9 g) in the plants treated with 
Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot and inoculation of 
Azospirillum @ 10 6 , without FYM application. 
Fresh root yield/plot (kg) was recorded maximum 
(0.534 kg) in the plants treated with application of 
Vermi-compost 3 kg/plot, alone and minimum 
(0.344 kg) in the plants applied with FYM @ 2 
kg/plot and Azospirillum @ 10 6 CFU. However, 
untreated plant recorded (0.268 kg) which was 
significantly higher than the lowest value obtained 
in the present investigation. Dry root yield/plot was 
recorded highest and maximum (0.12 kg) in the 
plants raised in the soil plots amended with 
Vermi-compost @ 2 kg/plot along with an 
inoculation of roots with Azospirillum @ 10 6 . 
However, a minimum (0.05 kg) was obtained in the 
plants treated with Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot and 
inoculated with Azospirillum @ 10 5 CFU, without 
applying FYM. Fresh root yield (kg/ha) was 
obtained maximum (2150 kg/ha) in plants grown in 
plots treated with FYM @ 2 kg/plot alone and 
minimum (1075 kg/ha) in the plants in the soil beds 
amended with Vermi-compost @ 2 kg/plot, alone. 
Dry root yield/plot (kg/ha) was obtained maximum 
(690 kg/ha) in the plants grown in the treatments 
composed of Vermi-compost @ 3 kg/plot and FYM 

2 kg/ plot inoculated with Azospirillum @ 10 6 . 
Whereas, a minimum (283 kg/ha) in the plants 
treated with FYM @ 2 kg/plot and inoculated with 
Azospirillum @ 10 . Fresh and dry root ratio was 
recorded highest and maximum (5.95) in the plants 
grown in the plots amended with Vermi-compost @ 

3 kg/plot and plant roots inoculated with 
Azospirillum @ 10 6 and minimum (2.5) in the 
plants raised with admixing the Vermi-compost @ 
2 kg/plot, alone. These findings are in close 
agreement with those obtained by and Nigam et al. 
(9) and Patidar et al. (13) in ashwagandha. It is 
evident from the findings that the higher 
application of bio-organic nutrients might have led 
to the improved production potential of crops 
determining the plant growth and development 
(Marschner, 5). The elemental response of 
available nutrients leading to the complementary 
effect, might have increased the plant growth 



attributes indirectly by taking part in the 
chlorophyll bio-synthesis process after its 
association into chlorophyll precursor's glycine as 
glutamine (Mishra and Srivastava, 6) production in 
the treated plants as reported by Singh et al. (14). 

The varying data recorded on root growth and 
quality parameters were noted significant in our 
findings. The accumulation of total alkaloid content 
and withananoid in the roots were significant with 
an application of vermi-compost, FYM and 
Azospirillum inoculation, expressed remarkable 
complimentary effects on the traits, which might be 
due to slower release of nutrients and a long 
duration of crop. Although a transitional change in 
the chemical constituents is reported at different 
harvesting dates (Patel et al. 12) but in our results it 
is harvested once and only on full maturity of the 
crop owing to the recorded higher values that might 
be due to an oxidation of starch and its conversion 
into alkaloids and production of more precursory 
compound to accumulate more withanaloids in the 
thicker plants and heavy roots under the different 
treatments composed of Vermi-compost and FYM 
@ 3 kg each per plot and growth an inoculation of 
Azospirillum @ 10 5 CFU in the current 
investigation. Contrary to these findings, the 
nitrogen amendments through inorganic source of 
fertilizers are known to responds poorly as reported 
by Muthumanickam and Balakrishnamurthy (7). It 
is however, expressed (Agarwal et al, 1), that a 
significant influence on increased root length and 
yield were due to favourable environmental 
conditions, prevailing during the initial growth, 
flowering and fruiting stage extending the longer 

growing period of the crop. 

The total alkaloid content (%) in the plant 
roots was recorded maximum (0.759%) in the plots 
treated with a mixture of Vermi-compost @ 3 
kg/plot and FYM @ 2 kg per plot along with an 
inoculation with Azospirillum @ 1 6 . However, the 
minimum alkaloid content (0.39 %) was noted in 
the plant roots raised with Vermi-compost @ 2 
kg/plot, applied alone. However, the untreated 
plant recorded a content (0.387 %) that remained 



Response of bio-organic nutrition on growth, yield and quality of Ashwagandha 



213 



Table 2: Root yield and quality parameters of Ashwagandha {Withania somnifera Dunal.) as influenced by different 
bio-organic treatments. 



Treatment 


Main 

root 

length 

(cm) 


No of 
Pri- 
mary 
roots/ 

plant 


No of 
secon- 
dary 
roots 


Secon- 
dary 
root 
length 
(cm) 


Fresh 

root 

weight 

/plant 

(g) 


Dry 

root 
weight 

/plant 

(g) 


Fresh 
root 
yield 

/plot 

(kg) 


Dry 

root 
yield 
/plot 
(kg) 


Alkal- 
oid 
content 

(%) 


With- 

naloid 
content 

(%) 


V F„ AZ 


14.30 


2.60 


6.10 


4.18 


19.50 


4.960 


0.268 


0.080 


0.387 


0.308 


V F AZ, 


15.00 


2.55 


5.20 


5.09 


20.50 


5.195 


0.405 


0.115 


0.457 


0.330 


V F„ AZ, 


16.70 


3.90 


5.70 


6.05 


21.50 


5.165 


0.329 


0.095 


0.450 


0.342 


V F, AZ 


16.30 


4.30 


6.40 


5.43 


23.00 


5.050 


0.470 


0.085 


0.554 


0.368 


V F, AZ, 


16.90 


4.80 


5.35 


6.24 


17.70 


3.250 


0.347 


0.055 


0.584 


0.378 


V F, AZ 2 


16.70 


1.55 


5.90 


4.18 


16.50 


5.090 


0.344 


0.085 


0.571 


0.392 


V F 2 AZ 


17.20 


2.70 


5.45 


5.12 


21.00 


5.115 


0.397 


0.085 


0.595 


0.418 


V F 2 AZ, 


12.60 


2.20 


4.90 


4.27 


14.50 


4.725 


0.359 


0.075 


0.621 


0.452 


V F 2 AZ 2 


20.90 


2.90 


4.45 


6.30 


17.00 


5.250 


0.460 


0.095 


0.648 


0.468 


V, F AZ„ 


15.60 


2.35 


4.60 


3.53 


11.75 


4.905 


0.430 


0.095 


0.390 


0.322 


V, F AZ, 


14.60 


3.30 


5.15 


5.06 


18.50 


6.090 


0.351 


0.095 


0.433 


0.348 


V, F„ AZ, 


17.70 


2.65 


6.60 


6.49 


21.50 


6.390 


0.425 


0.120 


0.533 


0.397 


V, F, AZ 


14.80 


2.95 


3.70 


3.41 


21.50 


5.015 


0.424 


0.105 


0.571 


0.404 


V, F, AZ, 


16.30 


2.15 


6.30 


5.83 


20.50 


5.285 


0.439 


0.095 


0.624 


0.440 


V, F, AZ 2 


14.80 


2.30 


5.05 


4.39 


17.50 


4.780 


0.410 


0.085 


0.642 


0.453 


V, F, AZ 


14.70 


2.44 


4.30 


4.25 


20.50 


4.515 


0.456 


0.095 


0.583 


0.470 


V, F 2 AZ, 


14.50 


4.20 


5.05 


6.04 


15.75 


4.670 


0.431 


0.115 


0.645 


0.481 


V, F, AZ, 


15.40 


2.10 


5.40 


4.52 


18.50 


4.540 


0.441 


0.075 


0.647 


0.519 


V 2 F„ AZ 


16.50 


5.10 


4.35 


5.91 


20.00 


5.075 


0.534 


0.095 


0.531 


0.330 


V 2 F„ AZ, 


17.30 


2.50 


5.25 


4.26 


19.75 


5.125 


0.365 


0.050 


0.585 


0.362 


V 2 F„ AZ, 


14.10 


1.75 


4.85 


6.06 


14.75 


2.900 


0.449 


0.085 


0.601 


0.387 


V 2 F, AZ 


17.30 


2.30 


4.50 


5.30 


17.50 


4.755 


0.472 


0.095 


0.552 


0.449 


V 2 F, AZ, 


14.00 


5.30 


5.70 


7.07 


17.75 


7.470 


0.450 


0.075 


0.725 


0.475 


V 2 F, AZ 2 


15.50 


1.70 


6.55 


5.02 


20.50 


4.145 


0.450 


0.085 


0.759 


0.579 


V, F, AZ 


14.56 


1.70 


5.45 


3.62 


22.50 


5.320 


0.507 


0.075 


0.640 


0.469 


V 2 F, AZ, 


18.80 


2.70 


4.80 


5.81 


28.00 


6.130 


0.501 


0.095 


0.688 


0.505 


V, F, AZ, 


15.70 


2.30 


4.80 


3.85 


19.50 


5.190 


0.446 


0.075 


0.657 


0.478 


Mean 

LSD (5%) 

P(0.001) 


15.880 

2.523 

** 


2.862 

0.765 

** 


5.253 

1.156 
** 


5.087 
0.822 

** 


19.164 

3.517 
** 


5.040 

0.732 
** 


0.421 

0.041 

** 


0.088 

0.018 
** 


0.580 

0.118 

** 


0.419 

0.095 
** 



V = Vermi-compost (Control) 
V, = Vermi-compost (2 kg/plot) 
V 2 = Vermi-compost (3 kg/plot) 



F = FYM (Control) 
F, = FYM (2 kg/plot) 
F 2 = FYM (3 kg/plot) 



Azo = Azospirillum (Control) 
Az, = Azospirillum (10 5 CFU) 
Az 2 = Azospirillum (10 CFU) 



214 



Kumar et al. 



11. 



12. 



significantly higher than the lowest value among all 
the treatments in the experiment. The maximum 
withanaloid content (0.579 %) was observed in the 
plants grown in the plots amended with an 9 
admixture of Vermi -compost @ 3 kg/plot, FYM @ 
2 kg per plot and an inoculation of plant roots with 
Azospirillum @ 10 6 CFU. Whereas, the lowest 
contents (0.308 %) of withanolid was obtained 
from the untreated plants. The quantitative 10. 
determination of total alkaloid and withanolid 
content in the roots have also been worked out. 

REFERENCES 

1. Agarwal, Manish., Singh, P. and Agarwal, M.K. 
(2004). Effect of sowing dates and spacing on 
yield attributes and root yield of ashwagandha, 
Withania somnifera. J. Med. and Arom. Plant 
Sci., 26: 473-474. 

2. Arul, Navamani V.J. (2002). Integrated nutrient 
management of Ashwagandha (Withania 
somnifera Dunal.) for growth, yield and quality. 
M.Sc. (Hort.) Thesis, AC and RI, TNAU, 
Madurai. 

3. Bashan, Y. and Levanony, H. (1990). Current 
status of Azospirillum inoculation technology: 
Azospirillum as a challenge for agriculture. Can. 
J. Microbiol, 36: 591-608. 

4. Bashan, Y. and Holguin, G. (1 997). Azospirillum 
plant relations environmental and physiological 
advances (1990-1996). Can. J. Microbiol, 43: 
103-121. 

5. Marschner, M. (1995). Mineral nutrition of 
higher plants. Edn 2, London Academic Press 15. 
Ltd. 

6. Mishra, S.N. and Srivastava, H.S. (1983). Role 
of inorganic nitrogen in the synthesis and 
degradation of chlorophyll and carotenoids in j^ 
maize leaves. Biol Plant, 25: 21-27. 

7. Muthumanickam, D. and Balakrishnamurthy, G. 
(1999). Optimum stage of harvest for extraction 
of total Withanolides in ashwagandha (Withania 
somnifera Dunal.). J. Spices and Arom. Crops, 
8: 95-96. 

8. Nigam, K.B., Rawat, GS. and Prasad, Bhagwat 
(1984). Effect of methods of sowing, plant 



13. 



14. 



density and fertility level on ashwagandha 
(Withania somnifera Dunal.). South Indian 
Hort., 32(6): 356-359. 

Nigam, K.B., Patidar, H., Kandalkar, V.S. and 
Pathan, MA. (1991). A new, promising, 
pre-release variety, 'WS 20', of ashwagandha 
(Withania somnifera). Indian J. Agric. Sci., 
61(8): 581-82. 

Okon, Y and Labandera-Gonzalez, CA. 
(1994). Agronomic applications of 
Azospirillum: an evaluation of 20 years 
worldwide field inoculation. Soil Biol. 
Biochem., 26: 1591-1601. 
Panse, V.G and Sukhatme, PV. (1979). 
Genetics and quantitative characters in relations 
to plant breeding. Indian J. Genet., 17: 318-328. 
Patel, K.V., Patel, D.H., Sushila, Patel, A. and 
Sriram, S. (2003). Effect of seed rate and crop 
duration on root yield and quality of 
ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). J. Med. 
and Arom. Plant Sci., 25: 54-57. 
Patidar, H., Kandalkar, V.S. and Nigam, Smita 
(1990). Estimation of leaf area in asgandh 
(Withania somnifera). Indian J. Agric. Sci., 
60(4): 263-264. 

Singh, Gopal, Kumar, Ashok, Kumar, 
Kamalesh, Singh, L.R. and Ram, B. (2005). 
Managament of Seedling and Collar Rot 
Disease by Fungal Bioagent and Chemical 
Fungicide in Nursery of Ashwagandha 
(Withania somnifera). In: Proceedings of 
National Seminar on Recent Advances in MAPs. 
February 15-17, Meerut. P. 83-84. 
Srivastava, S.K., Iyer, S.S., and Ray, G.K., 
(1960). Estimation of the total alkaloids of 
Withania somnifera (Dunal). Indian J. 
Pharmacy, 22(4): 94-95. 
Umrao, V.K., Tyagi, A.K., Sharma, Vishal, m 
Malik, Faeem, Akbar, PI. and Ali, Sher (2005). 
Effect of various levels of FYM & SOM (Sugar 
Organic Manure) on the vegetative growth and 
seed yield of Ashwagandha. (Withania 
somnifera Dunal.). In: Proceedings of National 
Seminar on Recent Advances in M & APs. 
February 15-17, Meerut. P. 78. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 215-219 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




PATH ANALYSIS BETWEEN FRUIT YIELD AND SOME YIELD 
COMPONENTS IN TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculeutum Mill) 

Madhurina Manna and Amitava Paul 

Department of CIHAB; Palli Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture) 
Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan-7 3 1 2 3 6, Birbhum, West Bengal 
E-mail: amitava. paid @ rediffmail.com 

ABSTRACT : Path analysis was performed on plant and fruit characters of fifteen tomato 
genotypes grown in a two year field experiment to determine for fruit yield, the direct and indirect 
effects of the following traits: plant height, no. of primary branches/plant, no. of fruits/plant, fruit 
weight (g), fruit bearing length, fruit length, fruit width and pericarp thickness. Fruit yield per plant 
was positively and significantly correlated with pericarp thickness, fruit length, fruit weight and 
no. of fruits/plant, whereas, fruit yield per plant had negative and significant association with days 
to 50% flowering, plant height, no. of primary branches/plant, fruit bearing length. Path analysis 
showed that plant height, fruit length, fruit bearing length and pericarp thickness had positive 
direct effects on fruit yield while other traits under study had strong negative direct effects. The 
significant positive correlation coefficients of no. of fruits/plant with fruit yield was resulted from 
positive indirect effects of days to 50% flowering, fruit weight, fruit width and pericarp thickness, 
while for fruit weight with fruit yield, significant positive correlation resulted from positive indirect 
effects via days to 50% flowering, no. of fruits/plant and no. of primary branches/plant. Results 
suggest that indirect selection for days to 50% flowering, fruit weight, fruit width and direct 
selection for fruit bearing length and pericarp thickness should be primary selection criteria for 
improving fruit yield in tomato. 



Keywords: Path analysis, correlation, tomato, yield. 

Plant breeding may alleviate the deficiency in 
vegetable production by developing varieties 
yielding higher under the severe ecological 
conditions of dry tracts of West Bengal prevailing 
in the districts of Birbhum, Bankura and Purulia. 
For that purpose, superior varieties must be 
developed by selection among and within 
populations that have very rich variations in 
important agronomic traits. The success of 
selection depends on the choice of selection criteria 
for improving fruit yield. Yield components do not 
only directly affect the yield, but also indirectly by 
affecting other yield components in negative or 
positive ways. As a trait can affect another trait 
positively, it can affect some other or all traits 
negatively (Walton, 24). For that reason, it is clear 
that correlation coefficient, which measures the 
simple linear relationship between two traits, does 
not predict the success of selection. However, path 
analysis determines the relative importance of 
direct and indirect effects on fruit yield (Bhatt, 5). 



Path analysis has been used to define the best 
criteria for selection in biological and agronomic 
studies (Mishra and Drolsom, 18; Williams et al, 

25). 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Two field experiments were carried out during 
two 'rabi' seasons (the 2004-05 and 2005-06) at the 
Horticulture Farm of Palli Siksha Bhavana 
(Institute of Agriculture), Visva-Bharati , Birbhum, 
West Bengal (23°29' N, 87° 42' E)and 58.9 msl). 
The research field had a loamy sand (utisol) in 
texture with acidic (pH 4.4) in nature. Fifteen 
winter tomato genotypes which were improved by 
selection were used in the experiments. These 
genotypes were sown in seed bed during the month 
of November, and the seedlings were transplanted 
in the main field 25 days after sowing. The 
experiments were arranged in a randomized 
complete block design with three replications. Plots 
were 5m long and consisted of four rows, keeping 
plant-to-plant and row-row spacing of 0.5m apart. 



Received: 11. 4.2012 



Accepted: 18.5.2012 



216 



Manna and Paul 



Before transplanting, the land was prepared 
following proper agronomic practices. The field 
was frequently irrigated, to avoid visible symptoms 
of draught stress. Weeds and insects were 
effectively controlled. 

Data on various quantitative characters viz. 
days to 50% flowering, plant height (cm), primary 
branches per plant, fruit bearing length (cm), fruits 
per plant, fruit weight (g), fruit yield per plant (g) 
were recorded. To achieve this, five plants (of two 
center rows leaving one row in the border areas to 
avoid border effects) were selected randomly per 
plot at the beginning of the growth seasons and 
various stages were recorded using these plants till 
the end of the growth seasons. Data on days to 50% 
flowering were recorded on whole plot basis. After 
harvesting of fruits, data on fruit length (cm), fruit 
width (cm), and pericarp thickness (mm) were also 
taken from five randomly selected fruits form each 
selected plant. 

Data collected during two growing seasons on 
these quantitative characters were pooled and 
correlation was performed as suggested by Johnson 
et al (15) and Al-Jibouri et al. (2). The relative 
importance of direct and indirect effects of 
measured traits on fruits yield was determined by 
path analysis following the method as suggested 
Dewey and Lu (10) and Burtan and De Vane (8). In 
the path analysis, fruit yield was the dependent 
variable and the rest eight parameters (mentioned 
above) were considered as independent variables. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Information on correlation and path 
coefficients and heritability estimates of yield and 
yield contributing characters, in tomato genotypes, 
is the first requisite to define selection criteria for 
developing hybrid varieties. There exists a large 
variation among the germplasm collections of 
tomato in the fruit yield. The variation, however, 
has remained unexplored due to lack of information 
on the relationships between component traits and 
their contribution towards yield. Most former 
studies concentrated on small number of traits, but 



in this study, morphological and phonological traits 
have been investigated simultaneously. 

Estimates of genotypic and phenotypic 
correlation coefficients among different pairs of 
characters of tomato is presented in Table 1. Highly 
significant and positive (genotypic and phenotypic) 
correlation coefficients with fruit yield were found 
for pericarp thickness, fruit length, fruit weight and 
number of fruits per plant, in that order. In former 
studies with tomato, fruit length, fruit weight (Das 
et al, 9; Yadav and Singh, 26; Padma et al, 21; 
Joshi et al, 16), pericarp thickness ( Bharti et al, 4; 
Bhushana et al., 6; Kumar et al, 17; Joshi et al, 1 6) 
and fruits per plant (Dhankar et al, 1 1 ; Harer et al., 
14; Singh et al, 23) exhibited strong positive 
correlations with fruit yield. 

Fruit yield was negatively and significantly 
correlated with days to 50% flowering, plant 
height, primary branches per plant, fruit bearing 
length at both genotypic and phenotypic level. Our 
results confirm the findings of Mohanty (19, 20) for 
primary branches per plant, Padma et al. (21) and 
Mohanty (19, 20) for plant height, but not for days 
to 50% flowering. 

Positive and significant correlation at both 
genotypic and phenotypic levels were also 
observed for days to 50% flowering with plant 
height, primary branches per plant, fruit bearing 
length; plant height with primary branches per 
plant, fruit bearing length; primary branches per 
plant with fruit bearing length; fruit weight with 
fruit length, fruit width and pericarp thickness; and 
fruit length with pericarp thickness. Barman et al, 
(3), Padma etal (21) recorded positive association 
between plant height and primary branches per 
plant. Das et al. (9) and Padma et al (21) also 
reported positive correlation between fruit width 
and fruit weight. 

Significant negative correlation at both the 
levels in this experiment were observed for days to 
50% flowering with fruit weight, pericarp 
thickness; plant height with fruits per plant, fruit 
weight, fruit length and pericarp thickness; primary 



Path analysis between fruit yield and some yield components in tomato 
Table 1: Genotypic (G) and phenotypic (P) correlation coefficients of different characters in tomato. 



217 



Characters 




Plant 

height 

(cm) 


Primary 

branches 

per 

plant 


Fruit 
bearing 
length 

(cm) 


Fruits 

per 

plant 


Fruit 
weight 

(g) 


Fruit 

length 

(cm) 


Fruit 
width 


Fruit 

yield 

per 

plant (g) 


Days to 50% flowering 


G 
P 


0.613** 


0.408** 


0.800** 


-0.209* 


-0.551** 


0.194 


-0.060 


-0.607** 


0.496** 


0.260* 


0.616** 


-0.182 


-0.464** 


0.143 


-0.060 


-0.470** 


Plant height (cm) 


G 
P 




0.580** 


0.686** 


-0.233* 


-0.218** 


-0.397** 


0.043 


-0.587** 




0.483** 


0.669** 


-0.208* 


-0.211** 


-0.378** 


0.041 


-0.569** 


Primary branches per plant 


G 
P 






0.483** 


0.003 


-0.110 


-0.422** 


-0.559** 


-0.437** 






0.414** 


0.015 


-0.101 


-0.325** 


-0.453** 


-0.358** 


Fruit bearing length (cm) 


G 
P 








-0.248* 


-0.336** 


-0.070 


0.021 


-0.612** 








-0.216* 


-0.325** 


-0.063 


0.023 


-0.598** 


Number of fruits per plant 


G 
P 










-0.343** 


-0.258* 


-0.704** 


0.152 










-0.316** 


-0.217* 


-0.596** 


0.145 


Fruit weight (g) 


G 
P 












0.263* 


0.207* 


0.455** 












0.253* 


0.193 


0.436** 


Fruit length (cm) 


G 
P 














-0.081 


0.564** 














-0.068 


0.533** 


Fruit width (cm) 


G 
P 
















-0.093 
















-0.078 



*Significant at 5% level, "Significant at 1% level. 

Table 2: Genotypic path coefficient analysis showing direct and indirect effects of different characters on fruit yield in 
tomato. 



Characters 


Days 

to 50% 
flower- 
ing 


Plant 
height 
(cm) 


Prim- 
ary 
branc- 
hes per 
plant 


Number 

of fruits 

per 

plant 


Fruit 
weight 

(g) 


Fruit 
bearing 
length 

(cm) 


Fruit 
length 
(cm) 


Fruit 
width 

(cm) 


Correla 
tion 
with 
fruit 
yield 


Days to 50% flowering 


-1.224 


0.291 


-0.465 


0.239 


0.251 


0.164 


0.043 


0.094 


-0.607 

** 


Plant height (cm) 


-0.750 


0.475 


-0.661 


0.265 


0.099 


0.141 


-0.088 


-0.068 


-0.587 
* 


Primary branches per 
plant 


-0.500 


0.276 


-1.139 


-0.003 


0.050 


0.099 


-0.094 


0.874 


-0.437 
** 


N umber of fruits per plant 


0.256 


-0.110 


-0.003 


-1.139 


0.156 


-0.051 


-0.057 


1.100 


0.152 


Fruit weight (g) 


0.675 


-0.103 


0.125 


0.391 


-0.455 


-0.069 


0.058 


-0.167 


0.455* 
* 


Fruit bearing length (cm) 


-0.980 


0;.326 


-0.550 


0.283 


0.153 


0.205 


-0.016 


-0.033 


-0.612 

** 


Fruit length (cm) 


-0.238 


-0.188 


0.481 


0.291 


-0.120 


-0.014 


0.223 


0.127 


0.564* 
* 


Fruit width (cm) 


0.074 


0.021 


0.637 


0.802 


-0.049 


0.004 


-0.018 


-0.564 


-0.093 



Residual = 0.273; * and ** Significant at 5% and 1% level, respectively; Diagonal (Bold) values indicated direct effect. 



218 



Manna and Paul 



branches per plant with fruit length, fruit width and 
pericarp thickness; fruit bearing length with fruits 
per plant, fruit weight and pericarp thickness; and 
fruits per plant with fruit weight, fruit length and 
fruit width. Significant negative correlation at both 
the levels were also found between number of 
fruits per plant and fruit weight by Mohanty (19, 
20), Padma et al. (21), Joshi et al. (16) and Singh 
et al. (23); between number of fruits per plant and 
plant height by Mohanty (20). 

However, reports on the nature of association 
between days to 50% flowering with pericarp 
thickness; plant height with pericarp thickness, fruit 
length and fruit width; fruit bearing length with 
fruits per plant, fruit weight and pericarp thickness; 
fruits per plant with fruit length and fruit width are 
scanty. Such type of negative association may arise 
primarily form developmentally induced 
relationship (Adams, 1) whereby the developing 
structures of the plant compete for a common 
factor, possibly limited nutrient supply and if one 
structure is more favoured than the other for any 
reason, a negative correlation may arise between 
them. 

In the present investigation, in general the 
genotypic and phenotypic correlations showed 
similar trend but genotypic correlation were at 
higher magnitude than phenotypic correlation in 
most of the cases. Vary close values of genotypic 
and phenotypic correlation were also observed 
between some character combinations which might 
be due to reduction in error (environmental) 
variance to minor proportions as reported by 
Dewey and Lu (10). Wide difference between 
genotypic and phenotypic correlations between two 
characters is due to dual nature of phenotypic 
correlation, which is determined by genotypic and 
environmental correlation, and heritabilities of the 
character (Falconer, 12). 

Path coefficients divided the correlation 
coefficient into a series of direct and indirect effects 
of morphological and phonological traits on the 
fruit yield of tomato (Table 2). Path analysis 
showed that only plant height, fruit length, fruit 



bearing length and pericarp thickness had positive 
direct effects, in that order, on the fruit yield while 
other traits had strong negative direct effects. The 
results are in conformity with Barman et al. (3), 
Bodunde (7), Singh et al. (22), Joshi et al. (16) for 
plat height; Padma et al. (21), Joshi et al. (16) and 
Singh et al. (23) for fruit length; and Singh et al. 
(23) for primary branches per plant and fruits per 
plant. 

The main effects of plant height and fruit 
bearing length were significantly negative and 
resulted mainly from the negative indirect effects 
via days to 50% flowering and primary branches 
per plant, whereas the main effects of fruit length 
and pericarp thickness were significantly positive 
and resulted mainly from the positive indirect 
effects via primary branches per plant, number of 
fruits per plant, fruit width and fruit weight 
indicating selection of these traits would be 
rewarding at least for the present situation. Fruits 
per plant had high and negative direct effect, but 
high positive indirect effects through fruit width, 
days to 50% flowering and fruit weight caused 
positive correlation. Similarly, fruit weight showed 
negative direct effect on fruit yield, but due to 
positive indirect effects via days to 50% flowering, 
primary branches per plant, fruits per plant and fruit 
length, the correlation was significantly positive. 
So for the characters like fruits per plant and fruit 
weight, the indirect causal factors are to be 
considered simultaneously for selection, since 
indirect effects seem to be cause of correlation. 

The residual effect (0.273) indicated that the 
nine characters included in this study explain 
moderate to high percentage of variation is fruit 
yield in this population. Moreover, majority of the 
values of path coefficients are less than unity 
indicating that inflation due to multicolinearity is 
minimal (Gravois and Helms, 13). 

REFERENCES 

1. Adams, M.W. (1967). Basis of yield component 
compensation in crop plants with special 



Path analysis between fruit yield and some yield components in tomato 



219 



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2. Al-Jibouri, H.A., Miller, P.A. and Robinson, 
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633-636. 

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LP. (1996). Correlation and path coefficient 
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4. Bharti, A., Jain, B.P., Verma, A.K. and Bharti, 
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5. Bhatt, G M. (1973). Significance of path 
coefficient in determining the nature of 
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6. Bhushana, H.O., Kulkarni, R.S., Basavarajaiah, 
D., Halaswamy, B.H. and Halesh, G.K. (2001). 
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9. Das, B., Hararika, M.H. and Das, PK. (1998). 
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10. Dewey, D.R. andLu, K.H. (1959). Acorrelation 
and path coefficient analysis of components of 
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15: 515-518. 

1 1 . Dhankar, S.K., Dhankar, B.S. and Sharma, N.K. 
(2001). Correlation and path analysis in tomato 
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Haryana J. Hort. Set, 30 (1/2) : 89-92. 

12. Falconer, D.S. (1960). Introduction to 
quantitative genetics . Long man, New York, pp 
85-90. 

13. Gravois, K.A. and Helms, R.S. (1992). Path 



analysis of rice yield and yield components as 
affected by seedling rate. Agron. J., 84: 1-4. 

14. Harer, P.N., Lad, D.B. and Bhor, T.J. (2003). 
Correlation and path analysis studies in tomato. 
J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 27 (3): 302-303. 

15. Johnson, H.W., Robinson, H.F. and Comstock, 
R.E. (1955). Estimates of genetic and 
environmental variability in soybeans. Agron J., 
47:314-318. 

16. Joshi, A., Vikram, A. and Thakur, M.C. (2004). 
Studies on genetic variability, correlation and 
path analysis for yield and physiochemical traits 
in tomato. Prog. Hort., 36: 51-58. 

1 7. Kumar, V.R A., Thakur, M.C. and Hedau, N.K. 
(2003). Correlation and path coefficient 
analysis in tomato. Ann. Agric. Res., 24: 
175-177. 

18. Mishra, S. N. and Drolsom, P.N. (1973). 
Association among certain morphological traits 
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19. Mohanty, B.K. (2002). Studies on variability, 
heritability, interrelationship and path analysis 
in tomato. Ann. Agric. Res., 23: 65-69. 

20. Mohanty, B.K. (2003). Genetic variability, 
correlation and path coefficient studies in 
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21. Padma, E., Ravisankar, C. and Srinivasulu, R. 
(2002). Correlation and path coefficient studies 
in tomato. J. Res., 30: 68-71. 

22. Singh, D.N., Sahu, A. and Parida, A.K. (1999). 
Genetic variability and correlation studies in 
tomato. Env and Ecol, 15: 117-121. 

23. Singh, J.K., Singh, J.P, Jain, S.K. and 
Aradhana, Joshi. (2004). Correlation and path 
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82-86. 

24. Walton, PD. (1980). The production 
characteristics of Bromus inermis LEYSS and 
their inheritance. Adv. Agron., 32: 341-369. 

25. Williams, W.A., Jones, M.B. and Demment, 
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207-11. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 220-224 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




EFFECT OF CHEMICALS ON SHELF LIFE AND QUALITY OF GUAVA 
(Psidium guajava) FRUITS CV. APPLE COLOUR 

Praveen Kumar Nishad, Balaji Vikram and V. M. Prasad 

Department of Horticulture Allahabad School of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of 
Agriculture, Technology and Sciences Allahabad-2 1 1 007(U.P.) 
E-mail: balaji. vikram55@gmail. com 

ABSTRACT: Guava cv. Apple colour is a commercial fruit crop for the grower in India but its self 
life is poor and its waste causes many economic problems. The aim of this study was to improve 
the self life of the fruit by the use of different chemicals composition, Waxol percentages and 
packaging materials. There were ten post harvest treatments — Bavistin (0%), (0.1%) and (2%) 
and Wax (0%), (6%) and (8%), and one storage condition i.e (Room temperature). Name of 
chemical use - Their effects were accessed by complete randomized design with three 
replications. The treated fruits of guava were stored at room temperature. There was decrease in 
vitamin C (mg) and acidity during storage period of guava fruit under room temperature. The 
increase in TSS and juice pH and physiological loss in weight of fruit was noticed in storage 
period irrespective of post harvest treatment and room temperature. All the treatments were 
found better in respect of TSS & ascorbic acid content over control. On the basis of results 
obtained the treatment combination T 4 (Waxol 6% + Bavistin 0.2%) proved to be the best in 
terms of fruit quality and better shelf life at room temperature. 



Keywords : Guava, waxol, polythene bags, carbendazim and LDPE. 



Guava {Psidium guajava) is one of the 
common and major fruit crops of India and 
considered fourth most important in area and fifth 
in production. It is rich in vitamin 'C (300 mg\ 
lOOg) and good source of calcium, phosphorous, 
pentathenic acid, riboflavin, thiamine and niacin. It 
is a climacteric fruit and highly perishable in nature 
and should be marketed immediately after harvest. 
The short post-harvest life of horticultural crops is 
due to their highly perishable nature and 
physiological break down during handling, 
transport, storage and these losses are further 
enhanced by infection of post harvest diseases. 
Various viable technologies for improving 
shelf-life and storage of horticultual commodities 
have evolved during the post decades; 
antitranspirants, wax coating, growth retardants 
and different type of packing materials etc. increase 
the shelf- life of harvested fruits. The technology 
holds considerable promise because in many cases 
it has an edge over the conventional methods. It 
could be applied judiciously where conventional 
methods are inadequate, uneconomical or pose 
potential health risks. It can also be used as a 
complementary process with many new and 



emerging technologies. The process helps in 
reducing chemical burden on the commodities and 
also increases the packaging possibilities. But in 
spite of these available techniques the percentage of 
post harvest losses of fruit is still high. Therefore, 
there has to be a standardization of techniques for 
reducing these post harvests losses in the produce 
thereby, maintaining the quality of the product. The 
techniques should be feasible, economically viable 
and easily affordable to the average growers. It 
should also be feasible from the health point of 
view of human beings (Hussain et ah, 4). All 
known methods of foods processing and even 
storing foods at room temperature for a few hours 
after harvesting can lower the content of some 
nutrients, such as vitamins (Aradhita et al, 1). 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The present investigation to enhance shelf life 
and quality of guava {Psidium guajava) fruit cv. 
Apple Colour through post harvest application of 
some chemicals was conducted at Post Harvest 
Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Allahabad 
Agricultural Institute. Allahabad during the year 
2008-09. The experiment was laid out in a C.R.D. 
with nine treatments (Table 1) each replicated 



Received : 29.5.2012 



Accepted: 20.6.201 2 



Effect of chemicals on shelf life and quality of guava fruit 



221 



thrice, keeping unit per treatments. The treated 
fruits of guava were stored at room temperature. 

Bavistin and waxol were applied on guava 
fruits and packed in a polythene bags to extend the 
shelf life. Regular observations were taken at 4 
days interval on physiological loss in diameter of 
fruit, specific gravity, T.S.S., acidity and vitamin C 
content. 

Table 1: Treatment combinations. 



s. 

No. 


Symbol 


Treatment combination 


1 


To 


Control (Bavistin (0%)+Waxol (0%)) 


2 


T, 


Bavistin (0.1%) + Waxol (0%) 


3 


T 2 


Bavistin (0.2%) + Waxol (0%) 


4 


T 3 


Bavistin (0%) + Waxol (6%) 


5 


T 4 


Bavistin (1 %) + Waxol (6%) 


6 


T 5 


Bavistin (2%) + Waxol (8%) 


7 


T 6 


Bavistin (0.%) + Waxol (6%) 


8 


T 7 


Bavistin (0.1%) + Waxol (8%) 


9 


T 8 


Bavistin (0.2%) + Waxol (8%) 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 
Diameter of fruit (%) : 

The results (Table 1 ) revealed that the effect of 
different levels of waxol, and interaction 
(waxol+Bavistin) was significant right from 0, 4, 8 
and 12 days of storage. Minimum physiological 
loss in diameter was recorded with the treatment 
combination T (Bavistin 0.% + Waxol 0%) i.e. 
6.60%, 5.90%, 5.65% and 5.20% at 0, 4, 8 and 12 
days of storage, respectively followed by T, 
(Bavistin 0.1% + Waxol 0%) i.e. 6.63, 6.23, 5.78% 
and 5.31%. Maximum physiological loss in 
diameter was recorded with the treatment 
combination T 5 (Bavistin 0.2% + Waxol 6%) 
confirming to results recorded by Jagdeesh, (5) and 
Teaotia et al. (10). 

Specific gravity : 

It is clear from Table 2 that the effect of 
different levels of waxol, and interaction 
(waxol+Bavistin) was significant right from 0, 4, 8 
and 12 days of storage. Whereas the interaction of 
different levels of Waxol + Bavistin was 
non-significant at 0, 4, 8 and 12 days of storage. 



Maximum specific gravity was recorded with the 
treatment combination T 4 (Waxol 6%) + Bavistin 
0.1%) i.e. 1.34, 1.15, 1.04 and 1.01 at 0, 4, 8 and 12 
days of storage which was followed by T 5 (Waxol 
6%) + Bavistin (0.2%) and minimum specific 
gravity was recorded in control. Similar results 
were also recorded by Shanker et al. (6). 
Total soluble solids (%): 

Maximum total soluble solids (Table 3) was 
recorded with the treatment combination T 4 (Waxol 
6% + Bavistin 0.1%) i.e. 12.49, 11.65, 10.16 and 
8.86 at 0, 4, 8 and 12 days of storage which was 
followed by T 7 (Waxol 1% + Bavistin 0%) and 
minimum total soluble solids was recorded with 
control. The results are inconsonance with the work 
of Goswami et al. (3) and Singh et al. (7). 
Acidity % : 

All the treatments showed significant 
difference for acidity content (Table 4) for different 
interval of storage periods. Maximum acidity 
(0.72%) was recorded in untreated (control) fruits 
followed by other treatment and minimum acidity 
(0.12%) was recorded with the treatment 
combination T 4 (waxol 6% + bavistin 0%). This 
finding is supported by Chen et al. (2) and Singh et 
al. (8). 
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content (mg/lOOg) : 

It is evident from Table 5 that all the 
treatments showed significant difference for 
different interval of storage periods. Maximum 
vitamin C was recorded with the treatment 
combination T 4 (Waxol 6% + Bavistin 0.1%) i.e. 
205.17 mg, 199.46, 173.25 and 153.92 mg at 0, 4, 8 
and 12 days which was followed by T 5 (Waxol 6%) 
+ (Bavistin 0.2%) and minimum vitamin C content 
was recorded with the control fruits. The findings 
are in support of Singh et al. (9) and Ylagan (11). 

On the basis of results obtained, the treatment 
combination T 4 (Waxol 6% + Bavistin 0.2%) 
proved to be the best in terms of fruit quality and 
better shelf life at room temperature. Since these 
finding are based on one year trial and therefore, 
further experiment may be done to substantiate the 
results. 



222 



Nishad et al. 



Table 1 : Effect of different levels of bavistin, waxol and their interaction on diameter (cm) of guava fruit cv. Apple 
Colour at different days of storage at ambient temperature. 





(B) 




Day 
Waxol (W) 




4" 1 Day 


Bavistin 


Waxol (W) 




Wo 


Wi 


W 2 Mean 


Wo 


Wi 


w 2 


Mean 






(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) (B) 


(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 


(B) 


B (0.0%) 




6.60 


6.83 


6.93 6.79 


5.90 


6.37 


6.43 


6.23 


B, (0.1%) 




6.63 


7.71 


7.10 7.15 


6.23 


6.77 


6.58 


6.53 


B 2 (0.2%) 




6.67 


7.60 


7.07 7.11 


6.23 


6.73 


6.57 


6.51 


Mean (W) 




6.63 


7.38 


7.03 


6.12 


6.62 


6.53 


- 








CD. (P = 0.05) 






CD. (P = 


0.05) 


Bavistin (B) 








NS 






0.022 




Waxol (W) 








NS 






0.022 




Interaction (B x W) 






NS 






0.038 




Bavistin 


(B) 




8 th Day 
Waxol (W) 






Waxol (W) 


12 th Day 





B (0.0%) 
B (0.0%) 
B, (0.1%) 
B 2 (0.2%) 
Mean (W) 

Temperature (TE) 
Time (T) 
Interaction (TE x T) 



Wo 

(0.0%..) 

6.60 

5.65 

5.78 
5.98 
5.80 



Wi 

(6.0%,.) 

6.83 
5.99 
6.35 
6.30 
6.21 



W 2 

(8.0%..) 
6.93 
6.00 
6.30 

6.15 

6.15 

CD. (P = 0.05) 
0.011 
0.011 
0.019 



Mean 
(B) 

6.79 

5.88 
6.14 
6.14 



(0 



Wo 
■0%..) 

5.90 
5.20 
5.31 
5.35 
5.29 



W, 

(6.0%,.) 

6.37 
5.35 
5.95 
5.85 
5.72 
CD. 



(P 



W 2 

(8.0%..) 
6.43 

5.38 
5.50 
5.50 
5.46 
= 0.05) 
0.040 
0.040 
0.070 



Mean 
(B) 

6.23 
5.31 
5.59 

5.57 



Table 2 : Effect of different levels of bavistin, waxol and their interaction on specific gravity of guava fruit cv. Apple 
Colour at different days of storage at ambient temperature. 









Day 










4 th Day 




Bavistin 


(B) 




Waxol (W) 








Waxol (W) 








w„ 


Wi 


w 2 


Mean 


Wo 


Wj 


w 2 


Mean 






(0.0%,.) 


(6.0%,.) 


(8.0%,.) 


(B) 


(0.0%,.) 


(6.0%,.) 


(8.0%,.) 


(B) 


B (0.0%) 




1.01 


1.11 


1.12 


1.08 


5.90 


6.37 


6.43 


6.23 


B, (0.1%) 




1.03 


1.34 


1.16 


1.18 


6.23 


6.77 


6.58 


6.53 


B 2 (0.2%) 




1.07 


1.27 


1.13 


1.17 


6.23 


6.73 


6.57 


6.51 


Mean (W) 




1.05 


1.24 


1.13 


- 


6.12 


6.62 


6.53 


- 








CD. (P = 


5%) 






CD. (P = 


0.05) 


Bavistin (B) 








NS 








0.010 




Waxol (W) 








NS 








0.010 




Interaction (B x W) 






NS 








0.017 










8 th Day 










12 th Day 




Bavistin 


(B) 




Waxol (W) 








Waxol (W) 








w„ 


Wi 


w 2 


Mean 


w„ 


w. 


w 2 


Mean 






(0.0%,.) 


(6.0%,.) 


(8.0%,.) 


(B) 


(0.0%,.) 


(6.0%,.) 


(8.0%,.) 


(B) 


B (0.0%) 




0.81 


0.92 


0.94 


0.89 


0.62 


0.78 


0.82 


0.74 


B (0.0%) 




0.86 


1.08 


0.95 


0.96 


0.71 


1.01 


0.90 


0.87 


B 2 (0.2%) 




0.88 


1.06 


0.94 


0.96 


0.75 


0.99 


0.89 


0.87 


Mean (W) 




1.05 


1.24 


1.13 


- 


0.69 


0.92 


0.87 


- 










2.D. (P = 


0.05) 




CD. (P = 0.05) 




Temperature 


(TE) 






0.009 








0.008 




Time (T) 








0.009 








0.008 




Interaction (TE x T) 






0.015 








0.013 





Effect of chemicals on shelf life and quality of guava fruit 



223 



Table 3 : Effect of different levels of bavistin, waxol and their interaction on total soluble solids (%) of guava fruit cv. 
Apple Colour at different days of storage at ambient temperature. 









Day 










4 th Day 




Bavistin 


(B) 




Waxol (W) 








Waxol (W) 








Wo 


Wi 


w 2 


Mean 


Wo 


Wi 


W 2 


Mean 






(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 


(B) 


(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 


(B) 


B (0.0%) 




10.46 


11.77 


11.80 


11.34 


10.02 


11.33 


11.35 


10.90 


B, (0.1%) 




11.70 


12.49 


12.27 


12.15 


11.31 


11.65 


11.43 


11.46 


B 2 (0.2%) 




11.70 


12.49 


11.85 


12.01 


11.32 


11.65 


11.37 


11.45 


Mean (W) 




11.29 


12.25 


11.97 


- 


10.88 


11.54 


11.38 


- 








C.E 


). (P = 0.05) 








CD. (P = 


0.05) 


Bavistin (B) 








NS 








0.04 




Waxol (W) 








NS 








0.04 




Interaction (B x W) 






NS 








0.06 




Bavistin 


(B) 




8" 1 Day 
Waxol (W) 








Waxol (W) 


12 th Day 






w„ 


w, 


w 2 


Mean 


w 


Wj 


w 2 


Mean 






(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 


(B) 


(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 


(B) 


B (0.0%) 




8.26 


9.76 


9.83 


9.28 


6.70 


7.17 


7.66 


7.18 


B, (0.1%) 




9.23 


10.16 


10.16 


9.85 


6.95 


8.86 


8.39 


8.07 


B 2 (0.2%) 




9.65 


10.16 


9.90 


9.90 


6.95 


8.86 


8.12 


7.98 


Mean (W) 




9.05 


10.03 


9.96 


- 


6.87 


8.30 


8.06 


- 








CD. (P 


= 0.05) 








CD. (P = 


0.05) 


Temperature 


(TE) 






0.04 








0.07 




Time (T) 








0.04 








0.07 




Interaction (TE x T) 






0.07 








0.12 





Table 4 : Effect of different levels of bavistin, waxol and their interaction on acidity (%) of guava fruit cv. Apple Colour 
at different days of storage at ambient temperature. 









Day 












4 th Day 




Bavistin 


(B) 




Waxol (W) 










Waxol (W) 








W 


Wi 


w 2 




Mean 


Wo 


Wi 


W 2 


Mean 






(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 




(B) 


(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%,.) 


(B) 


B (0.0%) 




0.89 


0.60 


0.57 




0.69 


0.86 


0.56 


0.53 


0.65 


B, (0.1%) 




0.80 


0.32 


0.33 




0.48 


0.75 


0.28 


0.29 


0.44 


B 2 (0.2%) 




0.75 


0.33 


0.56 




0.55 


0.72 


0.29 


0.52 


0.51 


Mean (W) 




0.81 


0.42 


0.49 




- 


0.78 


0.38 


0.45 


- 










CD. (P = 


0.05) 






CD. (P = 0.05) 




Bavistin (B) 








0.163 










0.007 




Waxol (W) 








0.163 










0.007 




Interaction (B x W) 






NS 










0.011 










8 th Day 












12 th Day 




Bavistin 


(B) 




Waxol (W) 










Waxol (W) 








w„ 


w t 


w 2 




Mean 


Wo 


Wj 


w 2 


Mean 






(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 




(B) 


(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%,.) 


(B) 


B (0.0%) 




0.91 


0.75 


0.67 




0.78 


0.72 


0.35 


0.26 


0.44 


Bo (0.0%) 




0.82 


0.34 


0.48 




0.55 


0.48 


0.12 


0.24 


0.287 


B 2 (0.2%) 




0.81 


0.35 


0.60 




0.59 


0.46 


0.24 


0.26 


0.32 


Mean (W) 




0.85 


0.48 


0.58 




- 


0.55 


0.24 


0.25 


- 










CD. (P = 


0.05) 






CD. (P = 0.05) 




Temperature 


(TE) 






0.008 










0.005 




Time (T) 








0.008 










0.005 




Interaction (TE x T) 






0.013 










0.009 





224 



Nishad et al. 



Table 5 : Effect of different levels of bavistin, waxol and their interaction on vitamin C content (ascorbic acid mg/100 g 
pulp) of guava fruit cv. Apple Colour at different days of storage at ambient temperature. 









Day 










4" 1 Day 




Bavistin 


(B) 




Waxol (W) 








Waxol (W) 








Wo 


Wi 


W 2 


Mean 


Wo 


Wi 


W 2 


Mean 






(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%) 


(B) 


(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 


(B) 


B (0.0%) 




181.38 


191.66 


191.80 


188.28 


176.66 


184.49 


187.59 


182.91 


B, (0.1%) 




183.83 


205.17 


199.68 


196.23 


178.83 


199.46 


193.33 


190.54 


B 2 (0.2%) 




190.22 


200.10 


198.27 


196.20 


183.83 


193.75 


191.25 


189/61 


Mean (W) 




185.14 


198.98 


196.58 


- 


179.77 


192.57 


190.72 


- 








CD 


. (P = 0.05) 






CD. (P = 0. 


05) 


Bavistin (B) 








NS 








1.81 




Waxol (W) 








NS 








1.81 




Interaction (B x W) 






NS 








3.13 










8 th Day 










12" 1 Day 




Bavistin 


(B) 




Waxol (W) 








Waxol (W) 








Wo 


Wj 


w 2 


Mean 


Wo 


Wi 


w 2 


Mean 






(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 


(B) 


(0.0%.) 


(6.0%.) 


(8.0%.) 


(B) 


B (0.0%) 




146.08 


161.69 


163.08 


156.95 


6.70 


7.17 


7.66 


7.18 


B, (0.1%) 




153.95 


173.25 


170.19 


1.65.80 


6.95 


8.86 


8.39 


8.07 


B 2 (0.2%) 




157.73 


171.84 


164.26 


164.61 


6.95 


8.86 


8.12 


7.98 


Mean (W) 




152.59 


168.93 


165.84 


- 


6.87 


8.30 


8.06 


- 








CD. (P=0.05) 








CD. (P = 


= 0.05) 


Temperature 


(TE) 






1.55 








1.29 




Time (T) 








1.55 








1.29 




Interaction (TE x T) 






2.69 








2.23 





4. 



REFERENCES 

Aradhita, B., Gupta, O.P. and Dhawan, S.S. 

(1995). Evaluation of guava (Psidium guajava 

L.) hybrids for making nectar. Haryana J. 

Hortic. Sci., 24(20): 102-109. 

Chen, W. and Zhang, F. (2001). The formed and 

physiological changes of guava fruit juice 

during post-harvest storage. Plant Physiol. 

Communi., 37(1): 25-26. 

Goswami, A.K., Shukla, H.S., Kumar, P. and 

Mishra, D.S. (2012). Effect of pre-harvest of 

application of micronutrients on quality of 

guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Sardar, 

HortFlora Res. Spectrum, 1(1) : 60-63. 

Hussain, A. and Shah, W.H. (1991). Preparation 

and evaluation of guava products (squash, 

cheese, jelly, pickle and chutney). Pakistan J. 

Agric. Res., 12(2): 106-111. 

Jagdeesh, S.L. (1994). Studies on the storage of 

guava fruit. M.Sc (Agri) Thesis, Univ. Agric. 

Sci., Dharwad. 

Shanker, G, Srivastava, K.K. and Das, CO. 



9. 



10. 



11. 



(1967). Physico-chemical studies of guava 
varieties of Uttar Pradesh. Allahabad Farmer, 
41: 7-16. 

Singh, K.D., Islam and Verma, O.P. (1976). 

Processing and storage of carbonated guava 

beverage. J. Food Process, and Preserv. (USA), 

20(1): 79-86. 

Singh, Rita, Kapoor, A.C. and Gupta, O.P. 

(1985). The effect of cultivars, seasons and 

storage on the nutritive value and keeping 

quality of guava cheese. Indian Food Packer, 

71-77. 

Singh, A.K. (1989). Studies on preparation and 

storage of guava (Psidium guajava L.) 

beverage. Ph.D. Thesis, N.D. Univ. of Agri. and 

Tech. Faizabad. 

Teaotia, S.S., Pandey, I.C., Agnihotri, B.N. and 

Kapour, K.L. (1968). Studies on some guava 

varieties (Psidium guajava L.) of U.P Indian 

Agriculturist, VI (1-2): 47-53. 

Ylagan, M.M. (1961). Ascorbic acid content of 

some guava fruit juice. Philippine Agric, 44 : 

477-478. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 225-230 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




EFFECT OF ETHREL ON POST HARVEST CHANGES IN PAPAYA 

{Carica papaya L.) FRUITS 

Priyanka Singh, Sanjay Kumar and Sutanu Maji 

Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University 
(A Central University), Vidya-Vihar, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow-226 025 
E-mail: sanjay 1 2 3bhu@gmail.com 



ABSTRACT: The present experiment entitled, "Studies on the effect of ethrel on post harvest 
changes in papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits was carried out to investigate the effect of ethrel on 
bio-chemical changes occurred during its post harvest life. The objective of this work was to 
evaluate the effects of various concentrations of Ethrel (500 ppm, 750 ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 
ppm) on shelf life of papaya fruits when stored under ambient conditions. The treated fruits were 
assessed for physiological changes such as percentage of ripening, loss of fruit weight (kg), 
biochemical aspects such as TSS (°Brix), titratable acidity (%), total sugars (%), reducing sugar 
(%), ascorbic acid content (mg/100g), total carotenoids (mg/100g) along with organoleptic 
evaluation. The observations were recorded at 3, 6 and 9 days after storage and the experiment 
was laid down using Completely Randomized Design. From the experiment it was clear that the 
overall performance of the above characteristics was found the best when the fruits were treated 
with 1500 ppm ethrel followed by 1000 ppm ethrel. 



Keywords: Papaya, ethrel, ripening, shelf life. 

Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major 
fruit crops cultivated in tropical and subtropical 
zones of the world. India is the largest producer of 
papaya in the world contributing about 37% of the 
papaya produced in the world with a cultivated area 
of about 1 06 thousand hectare and the productivity 
of 39.6 metric tonnes per hectare. The latest 
production of papaya in India during the year 
2010-2011 was 4196 thousand metric tonnes 
(Anon., 2). It is an abundant source of carotene 
(2020 I.U./lOOg), precursor of vitamin A. Papaya 
fruits are used for the treatment of piles, dyspepsia 
of spleen and liver, digestive disorders, diphtheria 
and skin blemishes. Ethrel (2, chloroethyl 
phosphonic acid) is one of the ethylene releasing 
substances, known mainly for its ability to induce 
fruit ripening. Aqueous solution of ethrel is stable 
below pH 3.5. Above pH 3.5, the hydrolysis of 
ethrel begins with the release of free ethylene along 
with chloride and phosphate ions. On dipping the 
mature fruits in ethrel, it enters into the fruit cells, 
releases ethylene and hastens the ripening process. 
Ethrel has been found very effective growth 
regulator in ripening and improving fruit quality in 
many climacteric fruits such as banana (Guerra et 

Received : 16.6.2012 Acceptance : 27.6.2012 



ah, 3), mango (Sampaio, 16), apple (Unreth, 20) 
and guava (Singh et ah, 19). However, very little 
work has been done so far to study the effect of 
ethrel on ripening and quality of papaya fruits. 

Keeping in view the usefulness of ethrel 
treatments in fruits as revealed by various 
scientists, the present study was aimed to evaluate 
the effectiveness of postharvest immersion in 
different ethrel concentrations on the postharvest 
quality attributes of papaya fruit kept at ambient 
temperatures. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The present investigation entitled "Effect of 
ethrel on post harvest changes in papaya (Carica 
papaya L.) fruits" was carried out at Laboratory of 
the Department of Applied Plant Science 
(Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar 
University, Lucknow during the year 2010 and 
201 1 . The fruits of papaya cv. Pusa Delicious which 
were physiologically mature and have attained the 
full size, light green with tinge of yellow at apical 
end were used for the study. The fruits were 
selected on the basis of uniformity, maturity, size 
and shape. The experiment was laid out in 



226 



Singh et al. 



Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five 
treatments and three replications. 

The fruits were washed with clean water, 
dipped for 30 seconds in 0.01% Bavistin and dried 
with muslin cloth before use. The fruits were dipped 
for five minutes in the following concentrations of 
Ethrel solution, i.e. control (T ), 500 ppm (Ti), 750 
ppm (T 2 ), 1000 ppm (T 3 ) and 1500 ppm (T 4 ). 

After each treatment, the fruits were air dried 
at ambient temperature for 30 minutes in an attempt 
to reduce possible chemical injury. The control 
fruits were dipped for five minutes in the distilled 
water without using the ethrel solution. The number 
of fruits treated under each treatment were twelve, 
out of which nine fruits were examined for their 
chemical composition in three replications at the 
interval of 3 days, 6 days and 9 days after storage. 
The remaining three fruits were tested for physical 
characters for the same intervals. 

The fruits sampled were assessed for 
percentage of ripening, weight loss, TSS, titratable 
acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid 
and total carotenoids and also evaluated by 
organoleptic test. Percentage of ripening (%) was 
calculated as per the formula : Ripening (%) = The 
number of ripe fruit/total number of fruit) x 100 and 
expressed as a percentage. Weight loss (%)was 
determined by weighing the fruit in each treatment 
at different intervals of storage and was expressed 
as percentage deviation in weight on the basis of 
initial weight. Titratable acidity, TSS, sugar and 
ascorbic acid were determined following the 
method described by Ranganna (13). Total 
carotenoids was measured by taking 5 grams of the 
sample, grounded with acetone and anhydrous 
sodium sulphate in a pestle and mortar (Ranganna, 
13). Organoleptic evaluation of five treatment 
combinations were judged by a trained panel of ten 
members using a Nine Point Hedonic Scale ('9' 
Like Extremely and '1' Dislike extremely) 
following the method of Murray et al. (9) for skin 
colour, flavour, texture, aroma and overall 
acceptability and the experiment was designed 
under Completely Randomized Design (CRD) for 



necessary data collection and statistical analysis. 
Comparison of treatment means were made with 
the help of Critical Differences. Duncan Multiple 
Range Test (DMRT) was used to group the 
treatment means on the basis of CD. The values 
were marked with English alphabets. The alphabet 
'a' denoted the maximum value and subsequent 
lower values in decreasing order were marked 
alphabeti- cally. The values marked with same 
alphabet(s) indicated that they were statistically at 
par. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Effect on Ripening : Present investiga- tion 
(Table 1) revealed that ethrel application enhanced 
the onset of ripening in papaya and the response 
varied according to the concentration. 100% 
ripening was found when the fruits were treated 
with ethrel @ 1500 ppm as early as three days after 
storage. Although it was found that increase in 
ethrel concentration hastened the ripening process 
but the effects of ethrel @ 500 ppm, 750 ppm and 
1000 ppm were statistically similar with control. 
All the fruits were ripened at 6 DAS. The mode of 
action of ethylene on ripening of fruits is not clearly 
understood. However it was explained by Holl (5) 
that ethylene probably brings about the climacteric, 
since in many fruits the rise in respiration is directly 
preceded by an elevation in the ethylene 
concentration. This respiratory climacteric can be 
induced by ethylene treatment without a 
simultaneous change in tissue permeability. It has 
also been reported that ethylene alters the 
proportion of individual transfer RNA species. This 
effect of ethylene may influence the transfer of m 
RNA and thus initiate ripening. 

Effect on weight loss : Table 1 indicated that 
the physiological loss in weight was significantly 
increased with the increase of ethrel concentrations. 
The maximum weight loss (24.49%) was observed 
at 1500 ppm where as it was only 14.30% in control 
at 9 DAS. Similar type of decrease in fruit weight 
during storage was also observed by Sharma and 
Singh (18) in dates and Gupta et al, (4) in citrus 



Effect of ethrel on post harvest changes in papaya fruits 



227 



Table 1: Effect of Ethrel on percentage of Ripening, Loss in weight , Titratable Acidity and T.S.S. of Papaya fruit during storage. 



Treatments 


Ripening(%) 


Loss in weight (%) 


Titratable Acid (%) 


TSS (°Brix) 


3DAS* 


6 DAS 


9DAS 


3DAS 


6 DAS 


9DAS 


3 DAS 


6 DAS 


9 DAS 


3 DAS 


6 DAS 


9 DAS 


Control 


44.44a 


100.00 


N.A. 


9.27e 


12.60d 


14.30d 


0.400a 


0.172a 


0.111a 


6.93d 


11.73c 


10.43c 


Ethrel @ 500 ppm 


44.44a 


100.00 


N.A. 


10.28d 


13.76cd 


15.99cd 


0.313b 


0.157b 


0.090b 


7.07cd 


11.90c 


10.90b 


Ethrel @ 750ppm 


55.55a 


100.00 


N.A. 


11.77c 


14.75bc 


16.80bc 


0.267c 


0.127c 


0.080c 


7.37bc 


12.37b 


11.07b 


Ethrel® 1000 ppm 


61.11a 


100.00 


N.A. 


13.09b 


15.44b 


18.47b 


0.160d 


0.1 04d 


0.068d 


7.60b 


12.67a 


11.47a 


Ethrel @1500ppm 


100.00b 


N.A. 


N.A. 


14.47a 


19.17a 


24.49a 


0.085e 


0.064e 


0.054e 


11.70a 


11.07d 


8.30d 


Mean 


61.11 


80.00 




11.775 


15.145 


18.010 


0.245 


0.125 


0.080 


8.13 


11.95 


10.43 


C.V. 


25.39 






5.747 


6.798 


9.202 


7.268 


1.880 


3.199 


3.225 


1.582 


2.052 


CD. (P=0.05) 


28.594 






0.805 


1.261 


1.900 


0.021 


0.003 


0.003 


0.312 


0.225 


0.255 



*DAS-Days After Storage. 

N.A. - not available for the study. 

The Tables represent the pooled values of two years data. 

Table 2: Effect of Ethrel on Per cent reducing and total sugar, Ascorbic Acid and Total Carotenoids of Papaya fruit during storage. 



Treatments 


Per cent reducing 
Sugar (%) 


Total sugar (%) 


Ascorbic Acid(mg/100g) 


Total carotenoids 
(mg/lOOg) 


3DAS 


6 DAS 


9DAS 


3DAS 


6 DAS 


9DAS 


3 DAS 


6 DAS 


9 DAS 


3 DAS 


6 DAS 


9 DAS 


Control 


3.55e 


5.75c 


3.77c 


3.55e 


5.75c 


3.77c 


27.20d 


42.37c 


29.63d 


2.34e 


2.89c 


1.99d 


Ethrel @ 500 ppm 


4.08d 


6.75b 


4.19bc 


4.08d 


6.75b 


4.19bc 


28.00d 


44.59b 


36.15c 


2.48d 


2.91c 


2.12c 


Ethrel @ 750ppm 


4.34c 


7.04ab 


4.30b 


4.34c 


7.04ab 


4.30b 


29.78c 


46.22ab 


39.70b 


2.66c 


2.98b 


2.21b 


Ethrel® 1000 ppm 


5.40b 


7.25a 


5.16a 


5.40b 


7.25a 


5.16a 


33.33b 


47.67a 


44.74a 


2.75b 


3.117a 


2.38a 


Ethrel @1500ppm 


6.36a 


5.70c 


4.03bc 


6.36a 


5.70c 


4.03bc 


44.44a 


39.41d 


27.56d 


2.88a 


2.780d 


1.86c 


Mean 


4.75 


6.50 


4.29 


4.75 


6.50 


4.29 


32.55 


44.05 


35.566 


2.622 


2.935 


2.11 


C.V. 


3.779 


5.983 


8.609 


3.779 


5.983 


8.609 


4.416 


3.296 


4.933 


1.171 


0.886 


1.785 


CD. (P=0.05) 


0.213 


0.462 


0.439 


0.213 


0.462 


0.439 


1.709 


1.727 


2.085 


0.037 


0.031 


0.045 



Table 3: Effect of Ethrel on Sensory Evaluation on Papaya fruit during storage. 



Treat- 
ment 


Colour 


Flavour 


Texture 


Aroma 


Overall Acceptability 


3 
DAS 


6 
DAS 


9 
DAS 


3 
DAS 


6 
DAS 


9 
DAS 


3 
DAS 


6 
DAS 


9 
DAS 


3 
DAS 


6 
DAS 


9 
DAS 


3 
DAS 


6 
DAS 


9 
DAS 


Control 


3.83d 


6.90c 


4.83 


4.40d 


7.43c 


5.57c 


4.37c 


7.43b 


5.43c 


4.33c 


7.40c 


5.47a 
b 


4.13d 


6.83d 


5.30c 


Ethrel @ 
500 ppm 


3.97c 
d 


7.17b 
c 


5.03 


4.57d 


7.63b 
c 


5.83b 


4.60c 


7.60a 
b 


5.67c 


4.50c 


7.53b 
c 


5.63a 


4.27c 
d 


7.13b 
c 


5.70b 


Ethrel @ 
750ppm 


4.50b 
c 


7.40a 
b 


5.33 


4.93c 


7.83a 
b 


6.10a 


5.10b 


7.83a 
b 


6.03b 


4.60b 
c 


7.70b 


5.87a 


4.43c 


7.30b 


5.80b 


Ethrel @ 
1000 ppm 


4.93b 


7.84a 


5.50 


5.27b 


8.00a 


6.27a 


5.33b 


8.03a 


6.33a 


4.83b 


8.03a 


6.00a 


4.70b 


7.67a 


6.17a 


Ethrel @ 
ISOOppm 


8.20a 


7.37b 


4.80 


8.17a 


7.13d 


5.30d 


7.80a 


6.80c 


5.47c 


8.03a 


6.97d 


5.00b 


8.00a 


7.00c 
d 


5.20c 


Mean 


5.09 


7.33 


5.10 


5.47 


7.61 


5.81 


5.44 


7.54 


5.79 


5.26 


7.53 


5.59 


5.11 


7.19 


5.63 


C.V. 


9.187 


5.117 


15.339 


3.895 


2.967 


3.077 


5.584 


4.934 


3.765 


4.840 


2.286 


8.075 


3.757 


3.476 


3.466 


CD. 

(P=0.05) 


0.556 


0.446 


NS 


0.087 


0.092 


0.213 


0.361 


0.442 


0.259 


0.303 


0.205 


0.537 


0.228 


0.297 


0.232 



228 



Singh et al. 



fruits when dipped in 250-500 ppm ethrel for 5 
minutes. 

Effect on Titratable Acidity : It is obvious 
from the present finding (Table 1) that acidity of the 
papaya fruit was decreased by post harvest 
application of ethrel and the response varied within 
the concentrations. Maximum decrease (0.054%) in 
total acidity was found in fruits treated with 1500 
ppm ethrel after 9 days of the treatment. Similar 
finding was also noted in guava (Singh et al, 19) 
and in date (Sharma and Singh, 1 8). Riberau-Gayon 
(14) suggested that transformation of organic acids 
into sugars was one of the reasons for deceasing 
organic acids during fruit ripening. Therefore, 
another possibility seemed that ethrel might 
enhance the conversion of organic acids to sugars 
since present findings revealed that sugar content 
was increased and acidity was decreased following 
ethrel application. 

Effect on Total Soluble Solids : The 

maximum T.S.S. (11.87°Brix) was observed in 
1500 ppm after 3 days of the treatment which was at 
par with in 1000 ppm treated fruits (12.67%) after 6 
days of the treatment. Similarly, increased total 
soluble solids due to post harvest application of 
ethrel was also reported by Singh et al. (19) in 
guava, Sharma and Singh (18) in date, Sandhu and 
Singh (15) in peaches and Abbas et al (1) in 
orange. Declining trend was noted thereafter 
irrespective of the treatments. A much reduced 
T.S.S. was noted on nine days after storage. The 
initial increased rate of T.S.S. might be due to rapid 
loss of water from the fruits and the conversion of 
starch in to sugar at a faster rate (Pool et al, 12). 
The decreased T.S.S. content at later stage of 
storage might be due to exhaustion of substrate of 
conversion i.e. starch (Leopold, 8). 

Effect on Reducing sugars and Total 
sugars: The present investigation revealed that the 
total sugars and reducing sugar increased with 
increasing ethrel concentration (Table 2). The 
maximum total sugar (8.11%) and reducing sugar 
(6.36%) was observed in 1500 ppm treated fruits as 
early as three days after storage. The values of 



sugar content increased upto 6 days after storage 
and declined thereafter except in 1500 ppm treated 
fruits where the value decreased on 6 days after 
storage. In the present experiment, ethrel enhanced 
the rate of accumulation of reducing sugar in 
papaya fruits. Similarly, high percentage of 
reducing sugar with ethrel application in dates was 
observed by Sharma and Singh (18). The finding is 
corroborated with the result of Kumar and Singh (7) 
who observed that higher percentage of sugar in 
ethrel (750 and 500 ppm) treated mango fruits over 
control). 

Effect on Ascorbic Acid : the ascorbic acid 
(Table 2) increased significantly up to 6 days after 
storage for all the treatment (except 1500 ppm) and 
declined thereafter but the maximum ascorbic acid 
was observed in 1500 ppm (44.44mg per lOOg) as 
early as 3 days after storage. The fruits during 
storage, in general showed a declining trend in 
ascorbic acid content significantly irrespective of 
the treatments applied but the value was increased 
with corresponding increase in the concentration of 
ethrel. A reduction in ascorbic acid content with the 
subsequent prolongation of storage might be due to 
rapid oxidation phenomenon of organic acid in later 
storage of storage (Orzolek and Argel, 11). 

Effect on Total Carotenoids : A significant 
increase in total carotenoids (Table 3) was observed 
upto six days after storage in all the treatment and 
declined thereafter except in 1500 ppm where 
decline in total carotenoids occurs on 6 days after 
storage. The maximum total carotenoids was 
observed in 6 DAS in lOOOppm (3.12 mg per lOOg) 
while 2.88 mg per lOOg of total carotenoids was 
observed in 1500ppm treated fruits an early as 3 
days after storage. Ethylene might increase the 
carotenoid through its synthesis. This fact was 
established by Young and Jahn (21) while working 
in citrus. 

Effect on the Organoleptic evaluation : 

Present investigation (Table 3) revealed that ethrel 
application had significantly influenced the sensory 
evaluation scores for flesh colour, flavour, texture, 
aroma and overall acceptability scores. In support 



Effect of ethrel on post harvest changes in papaya fruits 



229 



of the present study, the colour development in 
papaya fruits was remarkably affected by 
post-harvest application of ethrel. Out of all the 
concentrations of ethrel tried, 1500 ppm gave the 
most attractive and deep coloured fruits. The 
findings of Shanmugavelu et al. (17) in mango and 
papaya support the contention that ethrel treated 
fruits develop attractive colour. However, the 
specific mode of action of ethrel in accelerating 
colour development is not clearly understood. Nour 
and Goukh (10) observed that peel colour score 
progressively increased during ripening of guava 
fruits. They observed that fruits treated with ethrel 
(250-1000 ppm) reached the full yellow stage 3, 4 
and 6 days earlier than untreated fruits respectively. 
They also reported ethrel treated fruits had reached 
the soft stage 2-6 days earlier than the control. The 
study was also supported by Jayawickrama et al. 
(6) observed that sensory evaluation scores 
recorded for flesh colour, aroma ,taste and overall 
acceptability were significantly higher in ethrel 
treated papaya fruits as compared to control. 

CONCLUSION 

It can be concluded from the present 
investigation that use of ethrel had a significant 
impact on the shelf life of the papaya fruits because 
the ethrel treated fruit could retain the characters 
like T.S.S., acidity, sugar, ascorbic acid, total 
carotenoids and organoleptic characters for a longer 
duration than control. Among the treatments ethrel 
application @1000 ppm was the best for retaining 
the various physical, chemical and sensory 
attributes followed by ethrel application @ 750 
ppm till the end of storage studies whereas ethrel 
@ 1500 ppm was the best for inducing the earliness 
of ripening in fruits and preserving efficiently 
various physical, chemical and sensory attributes 
till 6 DAS. 

REFERENCES 

1. Abbas, M.F., Jassim, A. M. and Taha, A. H. 
A. (1984). The effect of Ethephon on ripening 
of cv.Mahaley orange. J. Hort. Set, 59: 
127-129. 



2. Anonymous (2010). Indian Horticulture 
Database, NHB, Gurgoan. 

3. Guerra, M.P., Pedrotti, E.L. and Reis, 
M.S.D.(1984). Ripening of bananas (Musa 
accuminata Simm. and Shep.) of cultivar 
Nanicao treated with different ethephon 
concentrations. Empresa, 1:183-201. 

4. Gupta, O.P., Chauhan, K. S. and Daulta, B. S. 
(1983). Effect of ethrel on the storage life of 
citrus fruits, Res. H.A.U., 13: 458-463. 

5. Holl,W.(1977). Fruit ripening. Plant Res. Dev., 
5:117-126 

6. Jayawickrama, F., Wijeratnam, R.S.W. and 
Perera, S. (2001). The effect of selected ripening 
agents on organoleptic and physico-chemical 
properties of papaya, ActaHort., 533 : 275-281. 

7. Kumar, P. and Singh, S. (1993). Effect of GA 3 
and ethrel on ripening and quality of mango cv. 
Amrapali. The Hort. J., 6(l):19-23. 

8. Leopold, A.C. (1964). Plant Growth and 
Development. Mc Graw Hill Publication.New 
York. 

9. Murray, J.M., Belahunty, CM. and Baxter, A. 
(2001). Descriptive sensory analysis-past, 
present and future. Food Res. Int., 34: 461-471. 

10. Nour, I. A.M. and Goukh, A.B.A. (2010) Effect 
of ethrel in aqueous solution and ethylene 
released from ethrel on guava fruit ripening. 
Agric. Biol. J. N. Amer, 1(3): 232-237 

1 1 . Orzolek, M.D. and Argell, F.F. (1974). Effect of 
ethephon on ascorbic acid and soluble solids in 
processing tomato cultivars. Hort. Sci., 9:306. 

12. Pool, R.M., Weaver, R.J. and Kliever, W.M. 
(1972). The effect of growth regulators on 
change in fruits of Thompson seedless during 
cold storage. J. Am. Soc., 97: 67-70 

13. Ranganna,S.(2007). Handbook of analysis and 
quality control of fruits and vegetables 
products, TataMcGraw Hill Publ. Co. Ltd. New 
Delhi, 1, 12-16,105-106. 

14. Ribereau Gayon, G (1968). Etudedes 
mechanisms synthese at de transformation 
delacide mailique,de 1' acide tartique at de I' 
acide mailique,chaz Vitis vinifera L. 
Phytochem., 7:1471-1482. 



230 



Singh et al. 



15. Sandhu, A.S. and Singh, Z. ( 1983). Effect of 
ethephon on maturation and fruit quality of 
peach. Punjab Hort. J., 23: 172-175 19. 

16. Sampio, V.R. (1981). Effect of 2-chloro- 
ethylphosphonic acid on mango ripening. Luiz 
de queniroz., 38: 85-91. 

17. Shanmugavelu, K.G., Selvaraj, P. Veerannah, L. 20. 
and Chittarichelvam, R. (1976). Effect of 
ethephon on the pipening of fruits. Prog. Hort. , 

8: 89-96. 

18. Sharma, R.K. and Singh, I.S. (1981). Effect of 21. 
preharvest application of ethephon on ripening 

and quality of two cultivars of date. First 



National Workshop on Arid Zone Fruit 
Research held at H.A.U., Hissar. 

Singh, H.K., Singh, I.S. and Chauhan,K.S. 
(1979). Effect of pre-harvest application of 
ethephon on ripening and quality of guava cv. 
Sardar. Udyanika, 2: 117-120. 
Unreth, C.R.(1971). Apple maturity and quality 
as affected by harvested by harvested 
application of ethephon (2-chloroethyl 
phosphonic acid). Hort. Set, 6: 303 
Young, R and Jahn, O. (1972). Ethylene 
induced carotenoids accumulation in citrus rind. 
J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci, 97: 258-261. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 231-234 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




FRUIT YIELD AND QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica Batsch.) AS 
INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENTIAL APPLICATION OF ZINC 

A. S. Sidhu, B. S. Sidhu and J. S. Brar 

PAU, Regional Research Station, Bathinda Punjab 
E-mail: ajaibssidhu@gmail. com 

ABSTRACT: The data revealed that fruit yield of peach increased with increasing application of 
zinc sulphate. The maximum fruit size ( 5.0 cm length and 4.9 cm breadth), fruit weight (89.00g), 
fruit yield per plant (58.25 kg) and yield per unit area (64.07 q/hectare) were observed with 800 g 
ZnS0 4 per plant as soil application followed by foliar spray (0.5%) whereas minimum yield was 
obtained without zinc application. Zinc application also improved total soluble solids (TSS) and 
TSS: acid ratio. However, acidity of fruits obtained from treated and untreated plants was not 
differ significantly but the highest acid content was observed in control plants, whereas lowest 
was in foliar application of 0.50 % ZnS0 4 . Fruits were also more palatable in Zinc applied plants. 
The highest concentration of zinc (11.55 ppm) in leaves was observed at higher doses of soil 
zinc application and was in lowest in control plants. 



Keywords: Peach, yield, quality, zinc concentration. 

Peach (Prunus persica) is one of the important 
temperate fruit grown in Punjab. This fruit crop is 
popular due to rich source of vitamin-A, iron and 
proteins. Peach is generally consumed as fresh as 
well as in the form of squash in the North Indian 
Plains. Its kernel oil is utilized in the manufacturing 
of cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. 
Gangwar et al. (6) surveyed the economy of peach 
cultivation in North Indian Plains and revealed that 
investment in peach orchards has been found a 
profitable business. The internal rate of return 
(IRR) has been found to vary from 20.98 per cent to 
23.80 per cent, depending on the size of peach 
orchards. 

Cultivation of stone fruits especially peach, 
plums and apricot has become popular in the 
subtropical climates of the North Indian Plains 
during past few years. The cultivation of this crop 
in Punjab has been expanded to many folds and 
occupies an area of about 1476 hectare producing 
about 25236 tones of fruit annually (Anonymous, 
2). Few studies on peach nutrition in Punjab have 
been conducted and these were limited to N, P, and 
K application. Foliar fertilization is effective 
method for the application of micronutrients like 
zinc to established fruit trees. One of the most 
critical periods when a zinc shortage may seriously 



impair tree performance is between bud break and 
fruit set. A zinc shortage at this time often results in 
poor growth of the leaves and new shoots, as well 
as abnormal development of pollen tubes, 
ultimately resulting in poor seed set in fruit crops. 
Later in the season, the effects of limited zinc are 
small fruit, poor yield and quality of fruits. Zinc is 
not readily mobile within the tree and applications 
must be thorough and timely for optimal response. 
Various methods of applying zinc are available; the 
most common being sprays of zinc sulphate and 
soil applications of zinc sulphate. The present 
investigations were conducted to observe the effect 
of different doses of soil and foliar applied Zn on 
fruit yield and quality of peach fruits. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The experiment was carried out to find out the 
effect of zinc fertilization on the yield and fruit 
quality of peach at Punjab Agricultural University, 
Regional Station Bathinda in the year of 2011. The 
soil of the experimental field was calcareous, non 
saline and alkaline nature having pH 8.70 and 
electrical conductivity 0.21 ds m" . The soil was 
low in organic carbon (0.21 per cent), medium in 
available phosphorus (18 kg ha" 1 ) and was high in 
available K (495 kg ha" 1 ). The content of DTPA 
extractable Zn was 0.78 mg kg" 1 . The experiment 



Received: 16.5.2012 



Accepted: 01.6.2012 



232 



Sidhu et al. 



was laid out on 7 years old peach plants. The zinc 
was applied through zinc sulphate at the rate of 
200g, 400g and 800g per plant as soil and 0.50 % 
ZnS0 4 (neutralized with calcium hydroxide) as 
foliar application. The experiment was conducted 
in randomized block design (RBD) with four 
replications. 

The basal doses of N, P and K were applied at 
the rate of 450g, 125g and 500 g per tree, through 
urea, single superphosphate and muriate of potash, 
respectively. The foliar spray of 0.50 % zinc 
sulphate was applied in the month of March. The 
crop was harvested in the end of April and data on 
fruit yield and quality were recorded. 

The physico-chemical characteristics of fruits 
were recorded in the months of April-May The 
observations on physical characters of fruits and 
yield were noted in terms of fruit size, fruit weight, 
yield per plant and yield per hectare. Similarly, the 
quality characters of fruits were recorded in terms 
of palatability rating, total soluble solids, acidity 
and TSS acid ratio. Palatability rating was given on 
the basis sensory quality and appearance of fruits 
by the panel of five judges. Total soluble solid was 
determined by using hand refrectometer and acidity 
was calculated as per methods of AOAC (1). 

For the estimation of zinc in leaves, the 
samples were collected from the plants in the month 
of May. The collected leaves were washed with 
diluted HCL, distilled and finally with double 
distilled water. The samples were digested in acids 
mixture for the determination of zinc and analyzed 
by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The TSS 
was estimated by hand refrectrometer and the 
acidity was estimated by titrating the juice against 
0.1 N NaOH solution. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Effect on size and yield of fruits: Fruit size 
was significantly affected with different 
applications of ZnS0 4 . Maximum fruit size in terms 
of length and breadth (fruit length 5.0 and fruit 
breadth 4.9 cm) was highest in each T 4 and T 5 and 
smallest fruits were obtained from plants kept as 



control (Table 1). The fruit size was significantly 
smaller in treatments with lower doses of ZnSCU. 
The results of the experiment also indicated that 
fruit yield improved with the increasing application 
of zinc to plants. The yield increased from 45.25 kg 
per plant to 58.25 kg per plant. Maximum fruit 
yield of peach was observed with the application of 
800g zinc sulphate per plant, whereas the minimum 
yield (45.25 kg per plant) was recorded in control. 
The application of ZnSCU at concentration of 400 
and 800g per plant significantly improved fruit 
yield over control. The effect of foliar application 
of ZnS0 4 at the rate of 0.50 per cent on fruit yield 
was found statistically at pat with ZnS0 4 @ 800 g 
per plant as soil application and better than 
treatment Ti and T 2 . The fruit yield per unit area 
was also highest in highest dose of soil applied 
ZnS0 4 , however it was statistically at par with 
foliar applied ZnS0 4 to plants. The similar results 
were also recorded by Chatzitheodorou et al, (5) 
who observed that application of Zn through 
manure improve the yield of peach. Zinc sulphate 
applied to the soil at the rate of 200 g per tree 
increased fruit yield markedly (Thomidis et al. 7). 
Similarly, fruit weight was also improved with 
ZnS0 4 application. The increment in fruit weight 
with increasing doses of ZnS0 4 was recorded. The 
fruits of T 4 and T 5 were heaviest and the weight of 
fruit in control plant was lowest. It is evident from 
the results that application of zinc is necessary for 
obtaining good yield. The increase in fruit size and 
yield may be due to increase in the rate of 
photosynthesis and activity of carbonic anhydrous 
with zinc application in peach plants (Basiouny and 
Baggs, 3). Tiwari et al. (8) also found similar 
results and observed that foliar application of zinc 
at the rate of 0.4-0.5 per cent have was effective on 
improving yield of peach fruit. 

Effect on quality: The effect of zinc 
application on fruit quality (Table 2) showed that 
the total soluble solids content of the fruits 
increased significantly in all the zinc treated plants 
than untreated plants. The highest total soluble 
solids was recorded in T 4 (11.14 %) followed by T 5 
(1 1 .00 %) and lowest total soluble solids (10.08 %) 



Fruit yield and quality of peach as influenced by differential application of zinc 



233 



Table 1: Effect of zinc application on the physical characters and yield of peach fruits. 



Treatments 
(ZnSO,,) 


Fruit 

length 

(cm) 


Fruit 

breadth 

(cm) 


Fruit 

weight (g) 


Fruit yield per 
plant (kg) 


Fruit yield per 
hectare (q) 


Control Ti 


4.45 


4.4 


76.00 


45.25 


49.77 


200 g (SA) T 2 


4.50 


4.6 


79.25 


49.25 


54.17 


400 g (SA) T 3 


4.8 


4.6 


82.25 


52.50 


57.75 


800 g (SA) T 4 


5.0 


4.9 


89.00 


58.25 


64.07 


0.5% (FA) T 5 


5.0 


4.9 


88.00 


58.00 


63.80 


CD (P = 0.05) 


0.02 


0.02 


1.80 


6.12 


4.05 



SA: Soil application, FA 
Table 2. Effect of zinc 



: Foliar application. 

application on the chemical characters of peach fruits and leaf Zn content. 



Treatments 
(ZnS0 4 ) 


TSS % 


Acidity % 


TSS/Acidity 
ratio 


Palatability 
rating 


Leaf Zn 

concentration 

(ppm) 


Control Ti 


10.08 


0.84 


12.07 


7.8 


7.64 


200 g (SA) T 2 


10.46 


0.78 


13.42 


7.7 


10.23 


400 g (SA) T 3 


10.85 


0.78 


13.92 


8.0 


10.35 


800 g (SA) T 4 


11.14 


0.73 


15.26 


8.1 


11.55 


0.5% (FA) T 5 


11.00 


0.75 


14.66 


8.2 


9.70 


CD (P = 0.05) 


0.52 


NS 


1.72 


0.20 


1.17 



SA: Soil application, FA : Foliar application. 



was in control plant. Similarly TSS/Acidity ratio 
was also highest in T 4 treatment followed by T 5 and 
lowest ratio was observed in control. However, the 
acidity was found to be in decreasing order with the 
increasing levels of zinc sulphate application. The 
decrease was observed from 0.84 to 0.73 % from 
control to 800g Zn application but the effect of zinc 
on acidity was observed non significant. This 
shows that in addition to increase in yield of fruit, 
zinc application had favourable effect in improving 
the quality of fruit by increasing TSS and reducing 
acidity in this study. The results are in association 
with the results of Lai et al. (4) who reported that 
total soluble solids (TSS) in the fruit was 
significantly higher with the soil application of zinc 
sulphate (0.5 kg tree~') as compared with all other 
treatments of zinc sulphate and the control in 
mango plants. 



Leaf Zn concentration : The data (Table 2) 
revealed that the concentration of zinc in plant 
leaves increased with the soil or foliar application 
of zinc. The concentration of zinc in plant 
significantly increased in T 2 , T 3 and T 4 treatments 
but the effect among these treatment was found non 
significant. Maximum concentration (11.55 ppm) 
was observed in T 4 treatment where zinc was 
applied through soil application @ 800g per plant, 
however, minimum concentration (7.64 ppm) was 
observed in control. In the present investigation 
data reveals that soil application of zinc contribute 
in the higher zinc content in plants as compared to 
foliar application. This may be due to continuous 
absorption of zinc from soil and its translocation to 
plant parts whereas foliar application of zinc on 
plant did not reach the concentration at the level 
than soil application. Thomidis et al. (7) also 
reported that foliar application of zinc sulphate 



234 



Sidhu et al. 



solution increased the Zn content of leaves and no 
toxicity was observed when applied in the month of 
May. Contrastingly, foliar application of 6 % zinc 
sulphate and soil application of zinc sulphate at the 
rate of 200 g per tree did not affect the Zn content of 
leaves when applied in the month of February. 

REFERENCES 

1. A.O.A.C. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. 
17 th Edn. Association of Official Analytical 
Chemists. Washington D.C. USA. 

2. Anonymous (2010). Package of practices for 
fruit crops. Punjab Agricultural University, 
Ludhiana. India p. 1 

3. Basiounty, F. M. and Biggs, R.H. (1976). 
Photosynthesis and carbonic anhydrase activity 
in zinc deficient peaches treated with ultra violet 
light. HortScience, 11: 408-10 

4. Lai, B., Malhi, C.S. and Singh, Z. (1998). Effect 
of foliar and soil application of zinc sulphate on 
zinc uptake, tree size, and yield and fruit quality 
of mango. J. Plant Nutri., 21(3) 589-600. 



Chatitheodorou I.T., Sotiropoulos T.E. and 
Mouthtaridou, G.I. (2004). Effect of nitrogen, 
phosphorus and potassium fertilization and 
manure on fruit yield and quality of peach 
cultivars Spring Time and Red Haven. 
Agro. Res., 2(2) 135-143. 
Gangwar, L.S., Singh, D. and Mandal, G 
(2008). Economic evaluation of peach 
cultivation in North Indian plains. Agri. 
Eco. Res. Rev., 21:123-129. 
Thomidis, T., Tsipouridis, C, Michailides, Z. 
and Exadaktylou, E. (2006). Effect of zinc on 
the leaf mineral content, yield, fruit weight and 
susceptibility of peaches to Monilinia laxa. 
Australian J. Exper. Agri., 46 (9) 1203-1205. 
Tiwari, J.P, Mishra, N.K., Mishra, D.D., Bisen, 
B., Singh, Y.P and Rai, R. (2004). 
Nutrient requirement for subtropical peach and 
pear for Uttaranchal, An overview. Acta Hort. 
In VII International symposium on temperate 
zone fruit in the tropics and subtropics. 662: 
132-134. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 235-238 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




EXTENDING HARVESTING PERIOD OF LITCHI {Litchi chinensis Sonn.) 
THROUGH CHEMICALS APPLICATION 

Mahesh Pal and D.S. Mishra 

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, 
Pantnagar—263 145, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand 



ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to stagger the harvesting of litchi in cultivar Rose 
Scented. In this regard, various kinds of treatments were imposed on 20 years old full bearing 
litchi tress either at flower initiation or few days before harvest of fruits. KN0 3 (4%) was sprayed 
at 1 cm size of panicle in the first week of February. However, other treatments viz. GA 3 (20, 40 
ppm), BA (20, 40 ppm) and bagging of fruit panicles were applied two weeks before expected 
date of harvest, while silver thiosulphate (10 m mol) sprayed twice (on 30 th April and 15 th May). 
Shading treatments were given by covering the tree with nylon nets producing 30% and 50% 
shade, respectively, 30 days after fruit set. KN0 3 (4%) and cluster bagging treatments advanced 
the harvesting for 2 and 3 days, respectively over control. Shade nets of 30% and 50% were 
most effective in delaying ripening of litchi fruits and delayed the harvest date by 14 and 16 days, 
respectively without compromising with the fruit quality. Silver thiosulphate gave a harvest delay 
of 8 days, however, a few brown spots on fruit skin were observed after the spray. GA 3 20 and 40 
ppm delayed the harvest date for 2 and 5 days, respectively while BA delayed the harvest date 
for 5-6 days. Higher fruit retention and reduced fruit cracking were obtained with shade net (50%) 
which was remained at par with shade net (30%) and cluster bagging. Higher fruit quality 
attributes were recorded with GA 3 (40 ppm) over other treatments. 



Keywords: KNO3, GA 3 , BA, shading, litchi, quality. 

Uttarakhand is one of the most popular states 
of the country known for its quality litchi 
production. The litchi industry in Uttarakhand is 
based on one major cultivar, the 'Rose Scented'. Its 
harvesting period is quite short, 7 to 10 days. The 
availability of fresh litchi fruits in the market may 
be extended for another few days by utilizing other 
genotypes available in the litchi. However, much 
scope is not there as available genotypes differ little 
with regard to their maturity period (Ray and 
Sharma, 9). Two pronged strategy may be 
employed to solve the problem i.e., either 
advancing the date of harvest or delaying the date 
of harvest. 

Still, there is no commercial method to be used 
for either advancing or delaying the harvesting time 
of litchi and thus extending the harvesting and 
marketing season. The motive of this study was to 
test methods for extending harvesting period of 
litchi. An alternative approach to induce early 
flowering and fruiting by using KNO3 has been 
successfully used in mango (Kumar et ah, 6). GA 3 



has been found to offer suitable means of 
controlling ripening process in litchi (Ray and 
Sharma, 9) and in other fruit crops (Dilley, 3, and 
Lavon et al, 7). Evidence suggest that cytokinins 
retards sugar accumulation and pigmentation in 
litchi fruits (Wang et al., 13). Yin et al, (14) 
demonstrated inhibition of litchi fruit maturation 
and colouration following silver thiosulphate (STS) 
spray, indicated that ethylene is involved in the 
regulation of ripening events. Bagging of fruits 
including litchi can improve ripening and reduce 
physical damage (Tyas et al, 11 and Wang et. al, 
13). Shading has been found to delay the fruit 
ripening in cactus pear (Mantia et al, 8), however, 
little information is available on litchi (Zipori et al, 
15). The objective of this study was to determine 
the relationship between integrated use of various 
treatments and litchi fruit maturity, size and quality. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The experiment was carried out in 2007 at 
HRC, Patharchatta, G.B.P.U.A&T, Pantnagar on 20 
year old plants of litchi cv. Rose Scented, spaced 



Received : 29.5.2012 



Accepted: 20.6.201 2 



236 



Pal and Mishra 



1 x 10 m and maintained under uniform cultural 
practices. The experiment was laid out in a 
randomized block design with three replications. 
All the treatments were applied after fruit set except 
4% KNO3 (Ti), which was sprayed at 1 cm panicle 
stage in the month of February. First and second 
sprays of 10 m mol silver thiosulphate (T 2 ) were 
carried out on 30 th April and 15 th May respectively. 
GA 3 at 20 ppm (T 3 ) and 40 ppm (T 4 ) and BA 
(6-Benzyl adenine) at 20 ppm (T 5 ) and 40 ppm (T 6 ) 
were sprayed only once, on 15 th May i.e. 2 week 
before from expected date of normal harvest. 
Teepol (2 ml/1) was added to the solution as wetting 
agent. Cluster bagging (T 7 ) with perforated and 
transparent polyethylene was also carried out 2 
week before harvesting on 15 th May. Shading 
treatments were gives on l sl May i.e. 30 days after 
fruit set. Trees were shaded by erecting over head 
shade nets producing 30% (T 8 ) and 50% (T 9 ) shade. 
Shade nets were removed one week before 
harvesting so that fruit colour of trees could be 
improved. There were total 10 treatments including 
control (T10). All treatments were applied to 
separate trees. 

Randomly 10 panicles were selected in each 
tree for recording data on fruit cracking and other 
fruit quality attributes. The fruits were considered 
to be ripe when they developed a bright pinkish-red 
blush with flattened tubercles (Gaur and Bajpai, 5). 
TSS was determined by using ERMA hand 
refractometer and acidity, regarded as citric acid, by 
titration of the juice with 0.1 N NaOH using 
phenolphthalein as the indicator. For estimating 
ascorbic acid, the fresh juice to which 4% 
metaphosphoric acid as stabilizing reagent had 
been added was titrated against 2:6 
dichloro-indo-phenol dye solution. Reducing 
sugars were determined by titrating the juice with 
fehling's solutions A and B (standardized) using 
methylene blue as indicator. For determining total 
sugars, the juice was subjected to acid hydrolysis 
and total sugars were estimated by the method 
described for reducing sugars. 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

In general, all the treatments except Ti (4% 
KN0 3 %) and T 7 (Cluster bagging) delayed ripening 
and thus extended the harvesting period in litchi cv. 
Rose Scented. However, treatments Tj and T 7 
advanced the harvest period by 2-3 days as 
compared to control (Wang et al, 13). Shade nets 
(30% and 50%) i.e. T 8 and T 9 were the most 
effective treatments with regard to delay in harvest 
time, and delayed the date of harvesting by 14 and 
16 days, respectively with significant reduction in 
fruit cracking and fruit weight was significantly 
higher over control (Table 1). Fruit quality in terms 
of TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid and total sugars were 
significantly higher over control. Zipori et al (15) 
effectively delayed fruit ripening by 7 to 10 days 
with the help of plastic nets producing 30% and 
50% shade without impairing fruit quality. Cladode 
shading resulted in a consistent delay of fruit 
ripening when the shade period exceeded 15 day. 
This might be due to the fact that exposure of fruits 
to solar radiations affects fruit sink activity (Erez 
and Flore, 4) and shading the fruit environment 
reduces fruit development processes (Byers et al, 
2). Application of silver thiosulphate (STS) at 10 m 
mol delayed harvesting by 8 days without any 
appreciable alteration in fruit weight and other 
chemical quality attributes. However, brown spots 
on fruits skin were appeared which might be due to 
higher concentration of silver ions; therefore, its 
lower concentration may be tried for better result. 
Phyto-toxicity has also been also reported by Beyer 
(1). Wang et al. (13) demonstrated possible role of 
ethylene in chlorophyll degradation in litchi, action 
of which might have been inhibited by silver 
thiosulphate (Yin et al, 14). Spray of GA 3 at 40 
ppm delayed harvesting by 5 days as compared to 
control with reduced fruit cracking, as well as 
acidity and with improved fruit and aril weight, 
TSS, ascorbic acid and total sugars. Increase in fruit 
and aril weight with enhanced fruit quality 
attributes and harvest delay in litchi with 
exogenous application of GA 3 has been reported 
earlier by Thakur et al. (10) in litchi. 



Extending harvesting period of Litchi 



237 



Table 1: Effect of chemical treatments on harvest advancement/delay and fruit quality of litchi cv. Rose Scented. 



Treatment 


Days 
taken 

to 
mat- 
urity 


Harvest** 


Fruit 
crack- 
ing 

(%) 


Fruit 
weight 

(g) 


Pulp 
weight 

(g) 


TSS 
(°Brix) 


Acidity 
(%) 


Ascor- 
bic 
acid 

(mg/ 
100 g) 


Total 
sugar 
(%) 


Advan- 
cement 


Delay 
(day) 


T, (4% KN0 3 ) 


58.33 


2.33 


- 


10.77 


22.20 


16.20 


20.52 


0.52 


27.99 


13.43 


T 2 (STS)* 


68.66 


- 


8.00 


9.21 


21.29 


15.65 


20.75 


0.67 


27.98 


13.50 


T 3 (GA 3 20 ppm) 


63.00 


- 


2.34 


7.43 


22.25 


16.32 


21.00 


0.63 


28.56 


13.58 


T 4 (GA 3 40 ppm) 


65.66 


- 


5.00 


6.13 


22.30 


16.38 


22.15 


0.56 


28.83 


14.25 


T 5 (BA 20 ppm) 


66.00 


- 


5.34 


7.99 


22.31 


16.41 


21.75 


0.61 


28.53 


13.02 


T 6 (BA 40 ppm) 


67.00 


- 


6.34 


7.93 


22.24 


16.38 


21.40 


0.66 


28.92 


13.20 


T 7 (Bagging) 


57.33 


3.33 


- 


8.33 


20.99 


15.68 


20.66 


0.69 


28.18 


13.08 


T 8 (30% shade net) 


74.66 


- 


14.00 


5.28 


21.59 


16.20 


20.65 


0.69 


28.16 


13.12 


T 9 (50% shade net) 


77.00 


- 


16.34 


4.49 


21.59 


16.30 


20.71 


0.70 


32.70 


13.13 


T10 (Control) 


60.66 


- 


- 


12.71 


19.06 


13.56 


18.63 


0.73 


25.84 


12.52 


CD. (P = 0.05) 


1.84 






3.85 


1.03 


0.86 


1.26 


0.045 


4.70 


0.34 



* Silver thiosulphate. 

** Harvest advancement/delay 



was counted by considering the date of harvest of control plants. 



The harvest delay resulting from BA at 40 
ppm was 6 day which is comparable to that gained 
with silver thiosulphate (STS) at 10 m mol; 
however, STS at this concentration had resulted in 
brown spotting of the fruits with less aril weight as 
well. Fruit quality of B A treated fruits was found to 
be at par with GA 3 treated fruits. Delayed maturity 
with 6-Benzyl adenine (BA) as observed during 
present investigation corroborated the earlier 
finding of Wang et al. (12). Cytokinin either inhibit 
or delay the colour changes in litchi fruit green to 
red associated with ripening though without 
influencing other changes markedly also supports 
the earlier finding of Wang et al. (13). 

Shading as well as other treatments 
profoundly affect on the ripening process of litchi 
cv. Rose Scented. Thus, they provide an 
opportunity for litchi growers to stagger the date of 
harvest as per the market demand. 

REFERENCES 

1. Beyer, Jr. E.M. (1976). A potential inhibitor of 



ethylene action in plants. Plant Physiol, 58: 
268-271. 

2. Byers, R.E., Carbaugh, D.H., Presley, C.N. and 
Wolf, T.K. (1991). The influence of low light on 
apple fruit abscission. J. Hort. Set, 66:7-17. 

3. Dilley, D.R. (1969). Hormonal control of fruit 
ripening. HortScience, 4: 111-114. 

4. Erez, A. and Flore, J. (1986). The quatitative 
effect of solar radiation on 'Redhaven' peach 
fruit skin colour. HortScience, 21: 1424-1426. 

5. Gaur, G.S. and Bajpai, P.N. (1977). Maturity 
standards for litchi fruits {Litchi chinensis 
Sonn.) cv. Calcutta. Prog. Hort., 9:11-17. 

6. Kumar, PS. Reddy, Y.V. and Hari, D.S. (2003). 
Effect of foliar spray of chemicals on flowering 
and fruiting of shoots emerging after pruning on 
mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Baneshan. 
South Indian Hort., 51(1-6): 7-11. 

7. Lavon, R, Bar Akiva, A., Shapchisky, S.; 
Cohen, E., Shalon, Y. and Brosh, P. (1982). 
Prolonging the harvesting season of Minneola 
tangelo fruits by spraying with nutrients and 
growth substances. Hassadeh, 63: 492-497. 

8. Mantia, T. La, Barbera, G and Inglese, P. 
(1 997). Effect of cladode shading on growth and 



238 



Pal and Mishra 



ripening of fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia 
ficus-indica L. Miller), J. Hort. Sci., 72(2): 
299-304. 

9. Ray, P. K. and Sharma, S. B. (1986). Delaying 
litchi harvest by growth regulator or urea spray. 
Sci. Hort, 28: 93-96. 

10. Thakur, S.; Kumar, R.; Brahmchari, V. S. and 
Sharma, R. K. (1990). Effect of different growth 
regulators on fruit set, retention and size of 
litchi. Indian J. Hort, 47(3):305-308. 

11. Tyas, J.A., Hofman, RJ. and Underhill, Steven, 
J.R. (1998). Fruit canopy position and panicle 
bagging affects yield and quality of 'Tai So' 
lychee. Sci. Hort., 72: 203-213. 

12. Wang, H.C. Huang, H.B. and Hung, X.M. 
(2007). Differential effects of abscisic acid and 
ethylene on the fruit maturation of Litchi 



chinensis Sonn. Plant Growth Regul. 52(3): 
189-198. 

13. Wang, H.C, Hung, X.M. Hu, G.B., Yang, Z.Y. 
and Huang, H.B. (2005). A comparative study 
of chlorophyll loss and its related mechanism 
during fruit maturation in the pericarp of fast 
and slow, degreening litchi pericarp. Sci. Hort 
106:247-257. 

14. Yin, J.H., Gao, F.F., Hu, G.B. and Zhu, S.H. 
(2001). The regulation of litchi maturation and 
colouration by abscisic acid and ethylene. Acta 
Hort., 558: 293-296. 

15 Zipori, Tomer E.I., Goren, M., Shooker, M, 
Ripa, M. and Foux, Y. (2001). Delaying the 
ripening of Maurititius litchi fruit : preliminary 
results. Acta Hort, 558:315-317. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 239-243 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




INTERACTION EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AND BIO-FERTILIZERS ON 
GROWTH AND YIELD OF ONION {Allium cepa L.) 

Yogita and R.B.Ram 

Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture) 

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya Vihar, Rae Bareily Road, 

Lucknow-226 025 (U.P.), India 



ABSTRACT : The present investigation comprising the supplementation of chemical and 
biofertilizers for onion crop was carried out under field conditions at Horticultural Research Farm 
of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow during rabi season of 2010-2011. The 
experiment comprised of four levels of chemical fertilizers and six levels of biofertilizers. The 
maximum plant heights, number of leaves, neck thickness, bulb diameter, bulb weight, number 
of scales and yield were found with the application of T 12 (100 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg K/ha + 2 
kg/ha Azotobacter+ 1 .9 kg/ha VAM) that was closely followed by Tn (1 00 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg 
K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter+ 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria ), T 18 (75 kg N +37.5 kg P + 52.5 kg K/ha 
+ 2 kg/ha Azotobacter+ 1 .9 kg/ha VAM) and T 17 (75 kg N +37.5 kg P + 52.5 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha 
Azotobacter + 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria) respectively. Minimum number of days required for 
bulb formation and number of days taken to maturity were also obtained with the application of 
T 12 (100 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 1 .9 kg/ha VAM). Results obtained 
by the application of inorganic fertilizers with biofertilizers exhibited significant effect on various 
parameters studied under the investigation. 

Keywords : Chemical fertilizer, biofertilizer, Azotobacter, VAM, onion, growth, yield. 



Onion (Allium cepa L.), is bulbous biennial 
herb of family Alliaceae is one of the most 
important vegetable cum condiment crops 
demanded worldwide. Moreover, onion is the only 
vegetable in which India figures prominently in the 
world for production and export (Singh and Joshi, 
12). Onion is an immense potential crop being part 
of medicinal values and hence, useful in fever, 
dropsy, catarrh and chronic bronchitis. Raw onion 
has an antiseptic value through the alimentary 
canal. It promotes bile production and reduces 
blood sugar. It is rich in minerals like phosphorus 
and calcium, vitamin C, protein and carbohydrates. 
In order to meet the increasing demand of the 
consumers and fill the gap in off-season, onion is 
now gaining popularity as kharif season crop too. 
Crop production of onion is affected by several 
factors. Usually little or no chemical fertilizer is 
added to this crop and hence characterized by low 
yield. Therefore, there is a need to study the 
possible ways of improving the yields of this crop. 
Biofertilizer have recently gained with momentum 
for affecting the sustainable increase in crop yield 

Received: 31.5.2012 Acceptance : 27.6.2012 



under various agro climatic conditions. 
Biofertilizers are live carrier based microbial 
preparations used in agriculture as low input 
resources to enhance the availability of plant 
nutrients or promote the growth by way of 
synthesizing growth factors. Role of biofertilizer on 
the crop growth and yield was documented by 
Vijayakumar et al. (13) and Ramakrishnan and 
Thamizhiniyan (8). Azotobacter fixes atmospheric 
nitrogen independently near the root zone thus, 
enhancing the available nitrogen to the soil whereas 
phosphobacteria solublize the soil phosphorus and 
makes them easily available for the plants. 
Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) play a 
vital role in development of stronger root system, 
improved growth (Zandavalli et ah, 14), nutrient 
uptake, increase tolerance of host roots to soil borne 
pathogens (Nelson and Achar, 6). 

Uses of biofertilizers in onion production, to 
at least partially supplement its nutrient demand 
and to improve soil fertility by way of the 
integration of different sources of plant nutrients in 
desired. Onion has a good response for biofertilizer 
inoculation due to real nature of their root 



240 



Yogita and Ram 



morphology. Literature indicates the very little 
information, therefore, keeping in view the above 
facts, present research work was undertaken on 
growth, yield and yield attributing characters of 
onion applying various biofertilizers and graded 
level of chemical fertilizers. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The present investigation was carried out at 
the Horticultural Research Farm of the Department 
of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb 
Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow during 
the rabi season of 2010-2011. The experiment 
comprised of four levels of inorganic fertilizers- 
1. N PoK (Without inorganic fertilizers) Co, 2. 
N1P1K1 (100 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg K/ha) d, 3. 
N 2 P 2 K 2 (75 kg N +37.5 kg P + 52.5 kg K/ha) C 2 , 4. 
N3P3K3 (50 kg + 25 kg P + 35 kg K7ha) C 3 ; and six 
levels of biofertilizers- 1 . Uninoculated (Without 
biofertilizers) B , 2. Azotobacter (2 kg /ha) B u 3. 
Phosphobacteria (PSB) (2 kg/ha) B 2 , 4. 
Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) (1900 
kg/ha) B 3 , 5. Azotobacter (2 kg/ha) + 
Phosphobacteria (2 kg/ha) B 4 , and 6. Azotobacter 
(2 kg/ha) + VAM (1900 kg/ha) B 5 . 

Thus, having a total of 24 (4x6) treatment 
combinations, i.e. T\ (C B ), T 2 (CoB^, T 3 (C B 2 ), 
T 4 (C0B3), T 5 (C0B4), T 6 (C0B5), T 7 (CiB ), T 8 
(C1B1), T 9 (CiB 2 ), T 10 (C1B3), Tn (C1B4), T 12 
(C1B5), T13 (C 2 B ), T14 (C 2 B!), T| 5 (C 2 B 2 ), T, 6 
(C2B3), T 17 (C 2 B 4 ), T lg (C 2 B 5 ), T 19 (C 3 B ), T 20 
(C3B1), T21 (C 3 B 2 ), T 22 (C3B3), T 23 (C 3 B 4 ) and T 24 
(C3B5). The quantity of fertilizers was given as per 
treatment. The entire amount of phosphorus and 
potassium along with half dose of nitrogen were 
applied as basal dose during the field preparation 
and rest amount of nitrogen was applied as top 
dressing in two- equal split doses at 30 and 60 days 
after transplanting. Azotobacter, Phosphobacteria 
and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae were 
applied at the time of transplanting i.e. Azotobacter 
and PSB as seedling root treatment and VAM as 
soil application. The transplanting was done in the 
last week of December 2010 and the seedlings were 
transplanted in the evening at 10 x 15 cm spacing. 



The experiment was laid out in R.B.D with twenty 
four treatments and replicated thrice. All the 
standard package of practices and plant protection 
measures were timely adopted to raise the crop 
successfully. Five randomly selected plants from 
each replication were utilized for recording 
observations on plant height (cm), number of 
leaves/ plant, number of days required for bulb 
formation, number of days taken to bulb maturity, 
neck thickness, bulb diameter, bulb weight, number 
of scales per bulb and yield (q/ha). Statistical 
analysis of the data was done as per standard 
method. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Growth parameters 

The observations recorded on plant height, 
number of leaves per plant, number of days 
required for bulb formation and number of days 
taken to maturity was significantly influenced by 
the interaction of inorganic fertilizers and 
biofertilizers. Perusal of Table 1 clearly indicates 
that the maximum plant heights and number of 
leaves (30.60 cm, 41.13 cm and 58.06 cm and 4.00, 
5.86 and 8.00, respectively) were recorded at 30, 60 
and 90 days after transplanting with the application 
of T 12 (100 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha 
Azotobacter +1.9 kg/ha VAM) which remained at 
par with treatment T n (100 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg 
K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 2 kg/ha 
Phosphobacteria ) and T 1S (75 kg N +37.5 kg P + 
52.5 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 1.9 kg/ha 
VAM). Whereas, the minimum plant heights and 
number of leaves were recorded 20.20 cm, 28.60 
cm and 40.53 cm and 2.33, 4.00 and 5.26, 
respectively at 30, 60 and 90 days after 
transplanting under control. These results are in 
confirmation with the findings of Jayathilake et al. 
(3) and Plenchette et al. (7). Singh et al. (11) also 
reported increased plant height and leaf number of 
onion with the use of VAM. Minimum number of 
days required for bulb formation (67.06) and 
number of days taken to maturity (129.86) were 
obtained with the application of T [2 (100 kg N + 50 
kg P + 70 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 1.9 



Interaction effect of chemical and bio-fertilizers on growth and yield of onion 



241 



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242 



Yogita and Ram 



kg/ha VAM) that was closely followed by T n (100 
kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter 
+ 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria ) and T18 (75 kg N 
+37.5 kg P + 52.5 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 
1.9 kg/ha VAM), respectively. Whereas, maximum 
number of days required for bulb formation (79.20) 
and number of days taken to maturity (140.00) were 
obtained under control. The observation is in the 
agreement with report of Ranjan et al. (9). 

Yield and yield attributing characters 

The results indicated that the yield and yield 
attributing characters viz., neck thickness, bulb 
diameter, bulb weight and number of scales were 
significantly increased by inorganic and 
biofertilizers. It was also further observed (Table 1) 
that the maximum neck thickness (1.51 cm), bulb 
diameter (8.06 cm), bulb weight (180.26 g) and 
number of scales (10.33) were found with the 
application of T 12 (100 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg K/ha 
+ 2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 1.9 kg/ha VAM) that was 
closely followed by Til (100 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 
kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 2 kg/ha 
Phosphobacteria ), T18 (75 kg N +37.5 kg P + 52.5 
kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 1.9 kg/ha VAM) 
and T n (75 kg N +37.5 kg P + 52.5 kg K/ha + 2 
kg/ha Azotobacter + 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria), 
respectively. Whereas, the minimum neck thickness 
(0.80 cm), bulb diameter (4.13 cm), bulb weight 
(78.20 g) and number of scales (5.8) were obtained 
under control. The hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi 
often penetrate 7 cm or more beyond the root into 
the rhizosphere and may be absorbing water and 
nutrients from soil solution of different osmotic 
potential than the root surface Rodes and 
Gerdemann (10). The improved water relations of 
mycorrhizal plants, although attributed to 'P' 
nutrition, could further benefit the water balance of 
plants. Biofertilizers along with chemical fertilizers 
resulted in substantial increase in bulb yield. 
Maximum yield (417.77 q/ha) was seen under T 12 
(100 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha 
Azotobacter + 1.9 kg/ha VAM) that was closely 
followed by T u (100 kg N + 50 kg P + 70 kg K/ha + 
2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria), 



Tig (75 kg N +37.5 kg P + 52.5 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha 
Azotobacter + 1.9 kg/ha VAM) and T 17 (75 kg N 
+37.5 kg P + 52.5 kg K/ha + 2 kg/ha Azotobacter + 
2 kg/ha Phosphobacteria), respectively. Thus, the 
yield maximization through VAM inoculation 
(Andrea et al, 1) could be achieved at VAM + l A P 
+ K against sole full dose of NPK. Similar results 
were also corroborates by Gurubatham et al. (2), 
Jayathilake et al. (4) and Mosse (5). 

REFERENCES 

1 . Andrea Emma, Z.M., Carmen, G.C and Ronald, 
F.C. (1996). The use of arbuscular mycorrhizae 
to control onion white rot (Sclerotium 
ceprivorum Berk.) under field conditions. 
Mycorrhiza., 6: 253-257. 

2. Gurubathum, R.J. P., Thamburaj, S and 
Kandasamy, D. (1989). Studies on the effect of 
biofertilizers on the bulb yield in Bellary onion 
{Allium cepah.). South Indian Hort., 36(1): 1-4 

3. Jayathilake, P.K.S., Reddy, LP, Srihari, D., 
Reddy, R and Neeraja, G. (2003). Integrated 
nutrient management in onion (Allium cepa L.). 
Tropical Agric. Res., 15:19. 

4. Jayathilake, P.K.S., Reddy, LP., Srihari, D., 
Neeraja, G and Reddy, R. (2002). Effect of 
nutrient management on growth, yield and yield 
attributes of rabi onion (Allium cepa L.). Veg. 
Sci., 29 (2): 184-185. 

5. Mosse, B. (1973). Plant growth responses to 
Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. IV, In. Soil 
given additional phosphate. New Phytol, 72: 
127. 

6. Nelson, R. and Achar, P.N. (2001). Stimulation 
of growth and nutrient uptake by VAM fungi in 
Brassica oleracea var. capitata. Bio. Plant, AA 
(2): 277-281. 

7. Plenchette, C, Furlan, V and Fortin, A. (1981). 
Effect of different mycorrhizal fungi on five 
host plants grown on calcined montomrillonite 
clay. Amer. J. Soc.Hort. Sci., 110: 535-538. 

8. Ramakrishnan, K. and Thamizhiniya, P. (2004). 
The effect of NPK fertilizer and AM fungi on 
the yield and quality characters of cotton 



Interaction effect of chemical and bio-fertilizers on growth and yield of onion 



243 



(Gossypium hirsutum L.) var. LRA 5166. Plant 
Arch., 9 (1): 87-88. 

9. Ranjan, J.K., Ahmed, N. Das, B., Pragya and 
Hare Krishna (2010). Effect of biofertilizers in 
combination with reduced dose of fertilizers on 
growth and yield of garlic at high altitude of 
north- west Himalayas. Indian J. Hort., 67 
(special issue): 263-267. 

10. Rhodes, L.H and Gerdemann, J.W., (1995). 
Phosphate uptake zone of mycorrhizal and 
non-mycorrhizal onions. New Phytol., 75: 555- 
561. 

11. Singh, S.N., Rao, N.S and Pawar, S.E. (1990). 
Studies on growth stimulation of onion {Allium 
cepa L.) with VAM in Maharashtra region. 
Indian. J. Appli. & Pure Bio., 5 (1): 1-3. 



12. Singh, D.P and Joshi, M.C. (1978). Correlation 
studies of rooting and sprouting losses onion 
with other traits during storage. Veg. Sci., 5 (1): 
1-3. 

13. Vijayakumar, B.S., PV. Bhiravamurthy and 
Anand, M.C. (2000). VAM fungi association in 
Lycoperiscon esculentum L. grown in semi-arid 
tropical soils of Puttaparthy, A.P.J. Ecobiol, 12 
(1): 73-74. 

14. Zandavalli, R.B.D., Dillenburg, L.R and 
Desouza, P.V.D. (2004). Growth responses of 
Araucaria angustifolia to inoculation with the 
mycorrhizal fungus Glomus clarum. Appl. Soil. 
Ecol, 25: 245-255. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 244-247 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN GARDEN PEA (Pisum 
sativum var. hortense) 

Dharmendra Kumar Dubey, S.S. Singh, R.S. Verma and P.K. Singh 1 

Department of Veg. Sci., N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229 
'Division of Olericulture, S. K. Uni. of Agric. Sci. & Tech. (K), Shalimar, Srinagar (J&K) 
E-mail: dube.vns@gmail. com 

ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of integrated nutrient 
management in garden pea (Pisum sativum var. hortense). The results indicated that application 
of vermicompost @ 1 t ha" 1 + rest PK (50:25 kg ha" 1 ) through chemical fertilizers with variety 
Azad Pea-3 resulted maximum height of plant (59.40 cm), number of pods plant" 1 (8.46), weight 
of pods plant" 1 (41 .22g), shelling percentage (50.66%) and yield of green pod (126.54 qha" 1 ). On 
the basis of cost of cultivation, maximum net return of Rs. 44392/ ha and C.B. ratio (1 :2.93) was 
recorded under Azad Pea-3 with the application of vermicompost @ 1 t ha" 1 + rest PK (50:25 kg 
ha" 1 ) and next best treatment was FYM @ 3 1 ha" 1 + rest PK (48:10 kg ha" 1 ) in the same variety 
which gave Rs. 41796/ ha with C:B ratio 1:2.57. 



Keywords : Garden pea, INM, vermicompost, shelling per cent, C.B ratio. 
r^ r A^ r,»o ic ™» n f tv,» n n ™,ior „»„ toKi Management in Gard 



Garden pea is one of the popular vegetable 
and it is also largely cultivated throughout the 
world for fresh and processed forms. India is the 
highest vegetable pea producing country in the 
world. It occupies 3.03 lakh hectare area with 
annual production around 20.38 lakh metric tonnes 
(NHB, 3). The share of peas was 2.3 % in total 
production of vegetables in 2001-02 (Rai and 
Panday, 5). In India, Uttar Pradesh is major pea 
growing state and it alone produces 61.75% more 
than half of total production of pea. Besides this, 
Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana and 
Rajasthan are also major pea producing states 
(Subrahmanyam and Gaganana, 6). In India, pea is 
commercially grown for its green pods in Rabi 
season in the plains of Northern India. While in 
hilly areas, it is successfully grown during summer 
season. Research on effect of Integrated Nutrient 
Management in garden pea (Pisum sativum var. 
hortense) is meager in U.P. and particularly at 
Faizabad conditions. The present investigation was, 
therefore, carried out to see the effect of integrated 
nutrient management on height of plant, yield 
attributes, yield and economics of garden pea. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The present experiment "Integrated Nutrient 



Management in Garden Pea (Pisum sativum var. 
hortense)" was conducted during Rabi season 
2007-08 at Main Experimental Station, Department 
of Vegetable Science, Narendra Deva University of 
Agriculture & Technology, Narendra Nagar 
(Kumarganj), Faizabad (U.P). The treatments 
comprised of three varieties of pea i.e. Arkel (Vi), 
Azad Pea-3 (V 2 ), NDVP - 6 (V 3 ) and twenty four 
treatment combinations with the various INM 
treatments i.e. Fi: Control, F 2 : Recommended dose 
of NPK (30:60:40 kg/ha) through chemical 
fertilizers, F 3 : FYM @ 3 t/ha + rest PK (48:10 
kg/ha) through chemical fertilizers, F 4 : 
Vermicompost @ 1 t/ha + rest PK (50:25 kg/ha) 
through chemical fertilizers, F 5 : Neem cake @ 5.89 
q/ha + rest PK (54:32kg/ha) through chemical 
fertilizers, F 6 : FYM @ 1.5 t/ha + rest NPK 
(15:54:25 kg/ha) through chemical fertilizers, F 7 : 
Vermicompost @ 0.5t/ha + rest NPK (15:55:32 
kg/ha) through chemical fertilizers and F 8 : Neem 
cake @ 2.9 q/ha + rest NPK (15:57:36 kg/ha) 
through chemical fertilizers. The experiment was 
laid out in RBD (Factorial) with three replications. 
Recommended dose of nitrogen (30 kg) was 
maintained with the use of 3t FYM, It 
Vermicompost and 5.8q Neem cake/ha and 
additional P & K that was provided through 
inorganic sources. Half of recommended dose of 



Received: 11.4.2012 



Accepted: 18.5.2012 



Integrated nutrient management in garden pea 



245 



nitrogen (15 kg/ha) was provided through organic 
sources and rest of NPK was by the inorganic 
fertilizers. The crop was sown in the l sl November, 
2007. Recommended cultural practices were timely 
adopted during the course of this investigation. The 
observations were recorded on growth, yield 
attributes and yield of garden pea affected by 
various treatments applied. The major nutrients (N, 
P, K) available in organic sources i.e. FYM, 
Vermicompost and Neem cake contained 1, 3 and 
5.2 per cent N, 0.4, 1.0 and 1 per cent P2O5 and 1, 
1.5 and 0.45 per cent K 2 0, respectively. An 
economics of the treatments used in garden pea 
crop was calculated to draw suitable treatment of 
integrated nutrient management for higher 
production. The economics of the treatments were 
computed on the basis of prevailing market rates of 
produce and agro inputs. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Variety and INM treatments showed 
significant response on yield attributes. The 
maximum length of pod (7.68 cm), number of 
pods/plant (7.42), average weight of pod (4.40 g) 
and pod yield (98.64 q) were obtained under variety 
Azad Pea-3 (V 2 ) which was significantly higher in 
comparison to variety Arkel (Vi). Among the 
various INM treatments, all the yield attributing 
parameters of garden pea such as number of 
grains/pod (7.33), number of pods/plant(7.67), 
weight of pods/plant (35.68 g) and shelling 
(48.33%) were significantly improved with the 
application of Vermicompost 1 t/ha + PK (50:25 
kg/ha) as compared to recommended dose of NPK 
(30:60:40 kg/ha) and control followed by neem 
cake @ 5.8 q/ha + rest PK (54:32 kg/ha) and FYM 
@ 3 t/ha + rest PK (48:10 kg/ha), (Table 1). The 
increase in yield attributing parameters might be 
due to integration of organic manure with inorganic 
fertilizer increased the availability of nutrients and 
these nutrients being important constituents of 
nucleotides, protein, chlorophyll and enzyme 
involved in various metabolic processes which 
have direct impact on vegetative and reproductive 
phases of plant. Inorganic fertilizer and organic 



manures (Neem cake, FYM, Vermicompost, 
Azospirillium and Phosphobacterium) alone or in 
combination on growth yield and quality of tomato 
was tested by Kumaran et al. ( 1 ) and observed that 
the better response was observed when organic 
manures + inorganic fertilizers applied. 

The data pertaining to yield of pods (q/ha) of 
garden pea varieties were markedly influenced by 
various treatments of organic manures and 
inorganic fertilizers (Table 2). Among the all 
treatment combinations, Vermicompost @ 1 t/ha + 
rest PK (50:25 kg/ha through chemical fertilizers) 
with variety Azad Pea-3 (V 2 F 4 ) gave highest yield 
of pods (126.54q/ha) whereas, minimum yield was 
recorded under control plot (Fi) with variety Arkel. 
In this treatment, the higher values of yield 
attributing parameters like number of pods/plant, 
length of pod and weight of pods/plant were 
recorded and all the above parameters are directly 
associated for the enhancement of yield of pods 
(q/ha). This increase in the yield might be due to the 
use of vermicompost which is rich in major 
nutrients and in addition to that it contains 
micronutrients also. These nutrients are easily 
available to the development of plant and available 
nutrients retention capacity prolonged in the soil 
with application of vermicompost and its balance 
availability might be resulted in producing better 
yield with the integration of inorganic fertilizers. 
The above finding was supported by Patil et al. (4) 
who reported that among the other sources of 
organic manure, vermicompost @ 1 t/ha in addition 
with NPK improved the yield of tomato. Meena et 
al. (2) also reported that yield of pods was 
maximum with the application of vermicompost in 
comparison to FYM with recommended dose of 
nitrogen in garden pea. 

The yield of pea varieties and economics of 
crop was affected by different INM treatments 
(Table 2). Among the treatment combinations, 
maximum yield of pods (126.54 q/ha), net return 
(Rs. 66,022) and cost benefit ratio (1 : 2.93) was 
recorded under the variety Azad Pea-3 with the 
application of vermicompost @ 1 t/ha + rest PK 



246 



Dubey et al. 



Table 1: Effect of Varieties and INM treatments on yield attributes and green pod yield of garden pea. 



Treatments 


Height 

of 
plant 
(cm) 


Leng 
th of 
pod 
(cm) 


No. of 
grains 
pod' 


No. of 

pods 

plant' 


Aver- 
age 
weight 
of pod 
plant' 

(g) 


Weight 
of pod 
plant' 

(g) 


Shell- 
ing 

percen 
tage 


Green 
pod 
yield 

(q/ha) 


Vi-Arkel 


53.38 


7.27 


6.62 


6.37 


4.16 


27.30 


45.00 


81.50 


V2-Azad pea-3 


56.51 


7.68 


6.95 


7.42 


4.40 


32.50 


47.08 


98.64 


V3-NDVP6 


54.75 


7.38 


6.67 


6.67 


4.19 


28.58 


45.58 


84.83 


CD. (P = 0.05) 


2.18 


0.30 


0.27 


0.28 


0.17 


1.14 


1.62 


4.30 


INM treatments 




Fi -Control 


47.83 


5.44 


4.47 


4.20 


3.44 


13.36 


40.22 


33.56 


F,-Reco. NPK (30:60:40 kg/ha) 


53.07 


7.50 


6.84 


6.72 


4.09 


27.59 


47.67 


82.87 


F 3 -FYM 3 t/ha + rest PK (48:10 kg/ha) 


56.03 


7.66 


7.06 


7.24 


4.42 


32.05 


46.00 


96.99 


F 4 -VC 1 t/ha + PK (50:25 kg/ha) 


57.33 


7.78 


7.33 


7.67 


4.64 


35.68 


48.33 


108.54 


F 5 -NC 5.89 q/ha + PK (54:32 kg/ha) 


57.03 


7.97 


7.23 


7.43 


4.49 


33.36 


46.89 


100.83 


F 6 -FYM 1.5 t/ha + NPK (15:54:25 kg/ha) 


55.90 


7.85 


6.93 


7.01 


4.40 


30.86 


47.22 


92.75 


F 7 -VC 0.5 t/ha + NPK (15:55:32 kg/ha) 


55.00 


7.67 


7.04 


7.12 


4.38 


31.18 


47.44 


95.26 


F 8 -NC 2.9 q/ha + NPK(15:57:36 kg/ha) 


56.87 


7.69 


7.05 


7.14 


4.42 


31.58 


47.22 


95.79 


CD. (P=0.05) 


3.06 


0.49 


0.45 


0.46 


0.27 


1.86 


2.65 


7.02 



Table 2: Effect of INM treatments on economics of garden pea crop. 



Treatments 


Yield of pods 
(q/ha) 


Gross income 
(Rs/ha) 


Cost of 

cultivation 

(Rs /ha) 


Net return 
(Rs/ ha) 


Cost-Benefit 
ratio (C:B) 


V1F1 


34.62 


24234 


18195 


6038 


1 


0.33 


V1F2 


77.51 


54257 


20242 


34014 


1 


1.68 


V1F3 


89. 56 


62692 


20895 


41796 


1 


2.00 


V1F4 


95.64 


66948 


22555 


44392 


1 


1.97 


V,F 5 


92.20 


64540 


24341 


40198 


1 


1.65 


ViF 6 


86.86 


60802 


20569 


40232 


1 


1.96 


V,F 7 


90.68 


63476 


21395 


42080 


1 


1.97 


ViF 8 


84.93 


59451 


22229 


37221 


1 


1.67 


V 2 F! 


35.84 


25088 


18195 


6038 


1 


0.38 


V 2 F 2 


95.54 


66878 


20242 


34014 


1 


2.30 


V 2 F 3 


106.61 


74627 


20895 


41796 


1 


2.57 


V 2 F 4 


126.54 


88578 


22555 


44392 


1 


2.93 


V 2 F 5 


112.29 


78603 


24341 


40198 


1 


2.23 


V 2 F 6 


99.98 


69986 


20569 


40232 


1 


2.40 


V 2 F 7 


105.19 


73633 


21395 


42080 


1 


2.44 


V 2 F 8 


107.14 


74998 


22229 


37221 


1 


2.37 


V 3 F! 


30.22 


21154 


18195 


6038 


1 


0.16 


V 3 F 2 


75.56 


54892 


20242 


34014 


1 


1.17 


V 3 F 3 


94.79 


66353 


20895 


41796 


1 


2.18 


V 3 F 4 


103.43 


72401 


22555 


44392 


1 


2.21 


V 3 F 5 


97.99 


68593 


24341 


40198 


1 


1.82 


V 3 F 6 


91.41 


63987 


20569 


40232 


1 


2.11 


V 3 F 7 


89.91 


62937 


21395 


42080 


1 


1.94 


V 3 F 8 


95.31 


66717 


22229 


37221 


1 


2.00 



* Sale rate of green pods @ Rs. 700 / q 



Integrated nutrient management in garden pea 



247 



(50:25 kg/ha through chemical fertilizers) and this 
treatment combination was found to be the most 
economical followed by FYM @ 3 t/ha + rest PK 
(48: 10 kg/ha) in the same variety which gave 1 :2.57 
cost : benefit ratio. Hence, it is suggested that 
vermicompost @ 1 t/ha + rest PK (50:25 kg/ha 
though chemical fertilizers) will be useful for the 
cultivation of garden pea variety Azad Pea-3 under 
agro-climatic conditions of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, 
particular under Faizabad conditions. 

REFERENCES 

1. Kumaran, S.S., Natarajan, S. and Thamburaj, S. 
(1998). Effect of organic and inorganic 
fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of 
tamato. South Indian Hort, 46 (3-6): 203-205. 

2. Meena, R.N., Singh, Y., Singh, S.P. Singh, J.P. 
and Singh, K. (2006). Effect of sources and 



level of organic manures on yield, quality and 
economocs of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) in 
Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Veg. Set, 31 (1): 60-63. 

NHB (2005). National Horticulture Board. 
Indian Horticulture Database 2003. Ministry of 
Agriculture, govt, of India, 85 Institutional area, 
sector 18, Gurgaon, India. 
Patil, M.P, Hulamani, N.C., Athani, S.L. and 
Patil, M.G. (1998). Response of new tomato 
genotype Megha to integrated nutrient 
management. Adv. Agril. Res., 9: 39-42. 
Rai, M. and Pandey, A.K. (2005). Meeting strict 
global standard. The Hindu Survey of Indian 
Agriculture, 149-153. 

Subrahmanyam, K.V. and Gaganana, T.M. 
(2000). Cooperative Marketing of Fruits and 
Vegetables in India. Concept Publishing 
Company, New Delhi, 17-30p. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 248-252 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




GENETIC VARIABILITY, HERITABILITY AND CORRELATION STUDIES 
IN CHILLI {Capsicum annuum L.) 

Diwaker Kumar, Vijay Bahadur, S.B. Rangare and Devi Singh 

Department of Horticulture, Allahabad School of Agriculture, SHIATS, Allahabad 



ABSTRACT: Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation for different yield 
contributing characters were studied in 20 genotypes of chilli. Significant differences were 
observed among the genotypes for all the traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) 
was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the traits. Traits like number of 
branches at 150 DAT, days to flower anthesis, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, 
ascorbic acid, capsaicin content and fruit length showed positive correlation with fruit yield per 
plant (g). While leaf curl incidence showed negative correlation at genotypic level. Genetic 
advance at 5% was found high for plant height after 1 50 DAT, number of fruits per plant, ascorbic 
acid and fruit yield per plant (g). Whereas, genetic advance as per cent of mean at 5% was 
noticed high for all the traits except days to flower initiation and days to first harvest. Number of 
fruits per plant exhibited the highest positive direct effect followed by days to flower anthesis, 
plant spread (N-S) at 150 DAT, ascorbic acid content, plant height at 150 DAT and fruit length at 
genotypic level. In view at the direct and indirect contributions of component traits towards fruit 
yield per plant, selection on the basis of horticultural traits viz., average fruit weight and number 
of fruits per plant would be a paying preposition in the genotypes included in the study. 

Keywords: Chilli, GCV, PCV, heritability, correlation, path analysis. 



Chilli, widely known as pepper, is a member 
of family Solanaceae and is very important crop for 
vegetable and spice purpose. Chillies are one of the 
rich source of vitamin A (292 IU) and C (111 mg) 
per 100 g fresh weight available. There is a good 
scope for increasing its export by pushing up 
production. In India especially, it is considered as a 
mint master for adding foreign exchange to the 
states have given it a good locus in the area of 
Horticultural crops and hence the breeder work for 
overall improvement of this crop for profitable 
returns. A wide range of variability in chilli is 
available which provide a great scope for 
improving fruit yield through a systematic and 
planned selection programme. The present inves- 
tigation was conducted for selected 20 genotypes to 
determine the extent of genetic variability, genetic 
coefficient, heritability, genetic advance and 
correlation of different characters in chillies. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The field experiment was carried at the 
Vegetable Research Farm, Department of 
Horticulture, SHIATS, Allahabad. Seedlings of 20 



genotypes of chilli were transplanted in a 
randomized block design with three replications 
during 2011-12. Seedling were transplanted in to 
the main field at 60cm row to row and 45cm 
between plant to plant spacing. All the recomended 
agronomic package of practices were followed. 
Observations on five randomly selected plants of 
each plot of each genotype were recorded for 14 
quantitative characters viz. plant height, number of 
branches per plant, plant spread (N-S) and (E-W), 
days to flower anthesis, days to first harvest, 
number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, 
capsaicin content, ascorbic acid content, fruit 
length, fruit diameter, leaf curl incidence and fruit 
yield per plant (g). The phenotypic and genotypic 
coefficient of variability were calculated according 
to the method suggested by Burton and DeVane (4). 
Heritability (broad sence), genetic advance and 
correlation were calculated according to the 
methods suggested by Hanson et al. (6), Johnson et 
al. (8), and Al-Jibouri et al. (2). 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Analysis of variance revealed significant 
differences among the genotypes for all the traits 



Received: 10.5.2012 



Accepted: 21.5.2012 



Genetic variability, heritability and correlation studies in chilli 



249 



indicating the presence of sufficient genetic 
variability in the genotypes and considerable scope 
for their improvement. Sufficient genetic 
variability for many of the horticultural traits 
studied in chilli had also been reported by earlier 
workers (Acharya et al., 1; Vani et ah, 13; Ukkund 
et al., 14). The extent of variability with respect to 
14 characters in different genotypes measured in 
terms of range, genotypic coefficient of variation 
(GCV), phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV), 
along with the amount of heritability (h), expected 
genetic advance and genetic advance as per cent of 
mean (GAM) are given in Table 1. The 
considerable amount of variation was observed for 
all the characters. The phenotypic coefficient of 
variability (PCV) was higher than the genotypic 
coefficient of variability in all the characters (Table 
1). The estimates of PCV and GCV were high for 
fruit yield per plant, number of fruits per plant, 
capsaicin content and average fruit weight, 
moderate for days to first harvest and low for 
ascorbic acid content. Mishra et al. (11) also 
reported high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient 
of variations for fruit yield per plant, number of 
fruits per plant and fruit length, respectively. The 
heritability of the highest magnitude was noticed 
for fruit yield per plant (99.60) and moderate for 
leaf curl incidence (33.00). Thus, it indicated that 
larger proportion of phenotypic variance has been 
attributed to genotype variance and reliable 



slection could be made for almost all the traits on 
the basis of phenotypic expression. High 
heritability estimates for fruit yield per plant, 
average fruit weight (Das and Choudhary, 5), 
number of fruits per plant (Sreelathakumary and 
Rajamony, 12), fruit length (Bhardwaj et al. 3), 
plant height (Ibrahim et al. 7) observed are in 
consonance with the present study. The heritability 
and high estimates of genetic advance ( as per cent 
of mean) were observed in case of fruits yield plant 
(99.60 and 88.98), capsaicin content (99.10 and 
81.43), number of fruits per plant (98.00 and 
85.43). High heritability and high genetic advance 
have also been obtained by Bhardwaj et al. (3) for 
fruit yield per plant, Sreelathakumary and 
Rajamony (12) for average fruit weight, (Kataria et 
al. (9) and Sreelathakumary and Rajamony (12) for 
number of fruits per plant. High heritability along 
with with moderate to low genetic advance was 
observed for average fruit weight, days to first 
harvest, days to flower anthesis, number of 
branches, fruit length and fruit diameter. The results 
are in consonance with the findings of Ibrahim et 
al. (7) for fruit length and Manna and Paul (10) for 
fruit weight. 

In the present experiment, the study of 
correlation among different characters revealed 
that, in general the genotypic correlation coefficient 
was larger than the phenotypic correlation (Table 
2). This indicates little role of environment in the 



Table 1: Range, mean, coefficient of variations, heritability and genetic advance of mean for 14 traits in chilli. 



SI. 

No. 


Characters 


Range 


Mean 


GCV 

% 


PCV 

% 


h 2 (bs) 


GA 


GAM 


Min. 


Max. 


1. 


Plant height (cm) after 150 DAT 


34.96 


81.26 


47.81 


21.08 


21.17 


99.10 


20.67 


43.23 


2. 


No. of branches after 150 DAT 


27.56 


48.68 


37.01 


15.64 


16.83 


86.40 


11.13 


29.93 


3. 


Plant spread (E-W) 150 DAT 


35.17 


61.07 


41.96 


15.32 


15.81 


93.90 


12.83 


30.58 


4. 


Plant spread (N-S) 150 DAT 


31.84 


53.99 


40.16 


12.85 


13.77 


87.00 


9.91 


24.69 


5. 


Days to flower anthesis 


26.73 


36.80 


32.27 


9.73 


11.23 


75.10 


5.61 


17.38 


6. 


Days to first harvest 


55.10 


76.94 


64.72 


10.12 


11.64 


75.60 


11.74 


18.13 


7. 


Fruits per plant 


12.84 


203.73 


113.81 


39.93 


40.34 


98.00 


92.68 


81.43 


8. 


Average fruit weight ( g) 


2.04 


4.29 


3.17 


20.43 


20.96 


95.00 


1.30 


41.03 


9. 


Ascorbic acid (mg/lOOg) 


123.27 


171.69 


147.22 


8.73 


8.91 


96.00 


25.93 


17.61 


10. 


Capsaicin content(%) 


0.12 


0.58 


0.35 


41.60 


41.79 


99.10 


0.30 


85.32 


11. 


Leaf curl incidence (%) 


13.32 


68.82 


34.19 


29.65 


51.62 


33.00 


11.99 


35.07 


12. 


Fruit length (cm) 


3.96 


12.31 


7.96 


29.21 


29.90 


95.40 


4.68 


58.79 


13. 


Fruit diameter (mm) 


5.90 


12.53 


9.16 


18.81 


19.39 


94.10 


3.45 


37.59 


14. 


Fruit yield per plant (g) 


47.66 


656.91 


356.75 


43.28 


43.36 


99.60 


317.44 


88.98 



GCV = Genotypic coefficient of variation, 
GA = Genetic advance, 



PCV = Phenotypic coefficient of variation, h 2 = Heritability, 
GAM = Genetic advance as percent of mean. 



250 



Kumar et al. 



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252 



Kumar et al. 



expression of genetic relationship of characters in 
the phenotype. Number of fruits per plant 
significantly positive correlated with number of 
branches at 150 DAT, days to flower initiation, 
number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, 
ascorbic acid content, fruit length, capsaicin 
content suggested that effective improvement in 
chilli through these component could be achieved 
by simple selection. These results are in 
consonance with the earlier researcher for number 
of fruits per plant (Ibrahim et al. 7; 
Sreelathakumary and Rajamony, 12; Bhardwaj et 
al, 3), fruit weight (Mishra et al, 11; Manna and 
Paul, 10). The significant association for average 
fruit length, number of fruits, fruit length suggests 
that increase in any one of these traits may result in 
increase in fruit yield per plant. Bharadwaj et al. (3) 
and Manna and Paul (10) also advocated that the 
importance should be given to number of fruits per 
plant, average fruit weight, number of branches per 
plant and fruit length during selection process 
because these characters contribute directly 
towards yield. 

At genotypic level, number of fruits per plant 
had the highest positive direct effect on yield per 
plant (Table 3) followed by days to flower anthesis 
(0.4332), plant spread (N-S) (0.3447), average fruit 
weight (0.2165) while negative direct effect was 
observed for number of branches (-0.3837), days to 
first harvest (-0.6229) and plant spread (E-W) 
(-0.1535). High direct and positive effect of fruit 
weight and number of fruits per plant (Mishra et al, 
11) have been reported. 

CONCLUSION 

In the direct and indirect contributions of 
component traits towards fruit yield, selection on 
the basis of horticultural traits viz., number of fruits 
per plant, and average fruit weight would be paying 
preposition in the genotypes included in the study. 

REFERENCES 

1. Acharya, P., Sengupta, S. and Mukherjee, S. 
(2007). Genetic variability in pepper {Capsicum 
annuum). Env. and Ecol. 25(4): 808-812. 

2. Al-Jibouri, H.A., Miller, PA. and Robinson, 
HE. (1958). Genotype and environmental 
variances and covariances in an upland cottmon 
cross of interspecific origin. Agron. J., 50 : 
633-636. 



3. Bharadwaj, D.N., Singh, H, Yadav, R.K. 
(2007). Genetic variability and association of 
component characters for yield in chilli 
{Capsicum annuum L.). Prog. Agri., 7(1-2) : 
72-74. 

4. Burton, GW. and Devane, E.W. (1953). 
Estimating heritability in tall fescue {Festuca 
arundinaced) from replicated clonal material. 
Agron. J. 45 : 468-471. 

5. Das, S. and Choudhary DN (1999). Genetic 
variability in summer chilli {Capsicum annuum 
L.). J. Appl. Biol, 9(1):810. 

6. Hanson, C.H., Robinson, H.E and Comstock, 
R.E. (1956). Bio-metrical studies of yield in 
segregating population of Korean lespedeza. 
Agron. J., Al : 268-272. 

7. Ibrahim, M., Ganigar, V.M. and Yenkerappa, 
S.T. (2001). Genetic variability, heritability, 
genetic advance and correlation studies in chilli. 
Kamataka J. Agri. Set, 14 (3): 784-787. 

8. Johnson, H.W., Robinson, H.E and Comstock, 
R.E. (1955). Estimates of genetic and 
environmental variability in soybean. Agron. J., 
47 : 314-318. 

9. Kataria, G.J., Pandya, H.M., Vaddoria, MA. 
(1997). Genetic variability, heritability, genetic 
advance of various polygenic traits in capsicum. 
Gujrat Agric. Res. J., 22(2): 18-21. 

10. Manna, M. and Paul, A. (2012). Studies on 
genetic variability and character association of 
fruit quality parameters in tomato. HortFlora 
Res. Spect., 1(2) : 110-116. 

1 1 . Mishra, Y.K., Ghildiyal, PC, Solanki, S.S., and 
Joshi, RP (1998). Corrrelation and path 
analysis in sweet pepper {Capsicum annuum 
L.). Recent Hort., 4:123-126. 

12. Sreelathakumary, J. and Rajamony, L. (2002). 
Variability, heritability and correlation studies in 
chilli {Capsicum spp.) under shade. Indian J. 
Hort. Scl, 59 : 77-83. 

13. Vani, S.K., Sridevi, O and Salimath, P.M. 
(2007). Studies on genetic variability, 
correlation and path analysis in chilli {Capsicum 
annuum L.) Ann. Bio. 23(2): 117-121. 

14. Ukkund, K.C., Patil, M.P, Madalageri, M. B., 
Ravindra Mulage and Jagadeesh, R.C. (2007). 
Variability studies in green chilli {Capsicum 
annuum L.). Kamataka J. Agri. Sci. 
20(1):102-104. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 253-258 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




EFFECT OF CALCIUM NITRATE ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHANGES 
AND SHELF-LIFE OF AONLA (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) FRUITS 

Santosh Gangwar 1 , H.S.Shukla 1 , Dheerendra Katiyar 2 and Vivek Pandey 2 

Department of Horticulture 
Department of Vegetable Science 
Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208002 U.P. 



ABSTRACT : The experiment was conducted at the Department of Horticulture, C.S.A. 
University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur during the year 2006-07 to find out effect of 
calcium nitrate on physico-chemical changes and shelf-life of aonla fruit. Completely 
Randomized Design (CRD) was selected with four treatments of calcium nitrate (0.5, 1 .0 and 1 .5 
per cent with control) and four other treatments of cultivars (Banarasi, Krishna, Kanchan and 
NA-7) and 5 days, 10 days and 15 days of storage period. Experiments unit was 1 kg fruit in 
perforated polythene bags. Fruits were treated and stored on 17 November, 2006. As regards 
among the treatments tried as post-harvest dip at 1 .0 per cent calcium nitrate treatment proved 
most effective in respect to increase physico-chemical qualities and shelf-life of aonla fruits. The 
1 .0 per cent calcium nitrate treated fruits significantly reduced the physiological loss in weight, 
pathological loss, exhibited better quality on account of its favourable effect on total soluble 
solids, total sugar and in retaining more ascorbic acid and acidity thereby rendering them 
acceptable upto period of 1 5 days. Different cultivars could keep well up to 5 days with 'Excellent' 
rating, 1 days with 'Good' rating while only NA-7 and Krishna with 'Fair' rating upto 1 5 days. 



Keywords : Aonla, calcium nitrate, cultivars, self-life, quality. 



Aonla belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It 
is called by several names in different parts of 
country e.g., amalaki, amal, amali and ambala etc. 
Its cultivation is since immemorial time in India. 
Aonla has become an important fruit (Chadha, 1). It 
is more popular in Uttar Pradesh, where it is largely 
cultivated in the district of Pratapgarh, Azamgarh, 
Varanasi and Jaunpur (Bajpai and Shukla, 2). At 
present, in production aonla ranks next to mango in 
U.P, Pratapgarh has been declared as aonla fruit 
belt and Agri-export zone (Prasad and Singh, 14). 

The fruit is capsular with fleshy exocarp and it 
has very high nutritive and medicinal qualities. 
Chopra and Nagask (6) pointed out that fermented 
liquor of fruit is used in dyspepsia and cough. It is 
richest source of Vitamin 'C and also contains fair 
amount of minerals and organic compounds. 

During storage losses are fruit weight, decay 
and nutritional quality. The pathological losses in 
fruits start soon after the harvesting which requires 
systematic study on shelf-life and storage stability 
of aonla fruits. A wide variation in physico- 

Received: 13.3.2012 Accepted : 18.5.2012 



chemical composition has been recorded in 
different cultivars of aonla (Pathak et ah, 13). 
Calcium plays an important role in maintaining the 
quality of fruit (Huber, 8). 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The experiment was carried out to find out 
effect of calcium nitrate on physico-chemical 
changes and shelf-life of aonla fruit at the 
Department of Horticulture, C.S.A. University of 
Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur during the 
year 2006-07. There were 16 treatments 
combinations, 4 treatment of calcium nitrate as 
0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% with control and 4 treatments of 
cultivars i.e. Banarasi, Krishna, Kanchan and 
NA-7. Duration of storage period was 5, 10 and 15 
days and unit was 1 kg fruits/bag with three 
replications in Completely Randomized Design 
(CRD). The fruit samples were stored 16 x 3 = 48 
under each storage period and analyzed after 5, 10 
and 15 days. Calcium nitrate was dissolved in the 
distilled water and physico-chemical composition 
of fresh fruit was recorded immediately after 



254 



Gangway et al. 



harvest. The fruits of each cultivar were divided in four 
equal groups. Three groups of each cultivar dipped 
separately in 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 per cent calcium nitrate 
solution and one group of each cultivar dipped in water 
for 30 minutes. Each group was kept in perforated bags 
after surface drying as per treatments and stored under 
ambient conditions. 

Physiological loss in weight under each treatment 
was calculated after certain storage period. The 
pathological loss was calculated on weight basis. Total 
soluble solids content was recorded with the help of 
hand refractometer. Sample was taken from each 
treatment and drop of juice was placed on the glass of 
refractometer and values were corrected to 20°C with 
the help of temperature correction chart (AOAC, 1). 
Acidity was estimated in terms of malic acid titrated 
against NaOH solution using phenolphthalein as an 
indicator. The ascorbic acid content was calculated as 
mg/100 g of pulp by the method of AOAC (1). Total 
sugar content was estimated with the help of 'Fehling 
solution method'. Organaleptic evaluation was made by 
the panel of four judges on the basis of various quality 
attribute viz., appearance of fruits, taste, flavour and 
aroma, colour and texture and rating marks were 
allotted out of 100. Mark score was 0-40 'poor rating', 
41-60 'fair', 61-80 'good' and 81-100 'excellent'. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

The result obtained in present investigation reveal 
that different post harvest calcium nitrate treatments on 
aonla fruit influenced various parameters (Table 1). The 
physiological loss in weight is an important parameter 
in maintaining the freshness of the fruit (Kumar et al, 
10). The physiological loss in weight per cent of fruits 
increased with the progress of storage. The minimum 
per cent physiological loss in weight was recorded in 
1.0% Ca (N0 3 ) 2 after 5 days (5.02%), 10 days (7.29%) 
and 15 days (15.37%) followed by 1.5% Ca (N0 3 ) 2 , 
whereas maximum was under control. Among the 
cultivars, maximum physiological loss in weight was 
found in Banarasi (20.66%) and minimum in NA-7 
(14.39%) after 15 days of storage. All the cultivars 
exhibited lower physiological loss when treated with 
calcium nitrate (1.0%) as compared to untreated ones. 



However the degree of loss increased with the 
progress of storage. Faust (7) reported that the 
highest weight loss of untreated fruits is due to 
increased storage breakdown associated with 
higher respiratory rate as compared to calcium 
nitrate treated fruits. The present observations 
are supported by Nath et al. (12) and Singh 

(18). 

The pathological loss (%) of fruit was 
significantly lower in 1.0% Ca (N0 3 ) 2 treated 
fruits as compared to remaining treatments 
after different storage periods. The higher 
pathological loss was recorded in control 
(17.09%) and it was lowest in 1.0% Ca (N0 3 ) 2 
treatment (2.55%). Among cultivars, the 
minimum pathological loss was found in NA-7 
after different storage period while maximum 
was found in Banarasi (18.84%) after 15 days 
of storage. Spoilage was mainly due to blue 
mould as reported by Singh and Kumar (19) 
and spoilage of fruits during storage by blue 
mould in aonla reported by Setty (16). 

The ascorbic acid content in aonla fruits 
decreased under all the treatments with 
advancement of storage period. The higher 
content of ascorbic acid was observed in 1.0% 
Ca (N0 3 ) 2 (516.45 mg/100 g pulp) after 5 days 
of storage, while the lowest (419.40 mg/100 g) 
was in control after 1 5 days of observation. As 
regards the cultivar, the maximum ascorbic 
acid content was recorded in Banarasi, whereas 
minimum was in Krishna after differnet storage 
period. The results are supported by Kumar et 
al. (9) and Singh et al. (20). 

The total soluble solids content exhibited 
increasing trend in all the cultivars under 
different treatments with the progress of 
storage period. The total soluble solids content 
was recorded maximum in 1.0% Ca (N0 3 ) 2 
(13.20°Brix), Whereas, minimum was in 
control (11.55°Brix). Among the cultivars, 
maximum total soluble solids was found in 
Banarasi, while minimum was recorded in 
NA-7 after different storage periods. The 



Effect of calcium nitrate on physico-chemical changes and shelf-life of aonla 



255 





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Effect of calcium nitrate on physico-chemical changes and shelf-life of aonla 



257 



highest total soluble solids (14.96°Brix) content 
was recorded under treatment combination of 
Banarasi and 1.0% Ca (N03)2 after 15 days of 
storage. The result is in close proximity with 
findings of Kumar et al. (10) and Roychaudhary et 
al. (15). 

The total sugar content in aonla fruit increased 
during storage (Table 1). The maximum total sugar 
content (8.49%) was recorded in Banarasi after 15 
days of storage, while minimum was found in NA-7 
(5.46). Among the treatments maximum total sugar 
content (7.5%) was noticed in 1.0% Ca (N0 3 ) 2 . As 
regards the interaction effect, it was maximum 
(8.92%) under treatment of combination of ViT 2 
after 15 days of storage. The increased conversion 
of starch into sugar due to activation of hydrolytic 
enzymes by calcium could be responsible for 
increases in sugar content (Chahal and Bal, 5; Saba 
et al. ,16). Kumar et al. (10) also reported that aonla 
fruits treated with Ca (N0 3 ) 2 showed maximum 
sugar level. 

The acidity content in per cent decreased in all 
the cultivars under different treatments with an 
increase in storage period. The maximum acidity 
(2.04%) was observed in 1.0% Ca (N0 3 ) 2 after 5 
days of storage, whereas minimum was recorded in 
control (1.58%). Among the cultivars, highest 
acidity content was found in Banarasi (2.46%) after 
5 days of storage and minimum (1.53%) in NA-7 
after 15 days of storage. The acidity decrease in 
aonla fruit may be due to utilization of organic acid 
in respiration. Jha et al. (9) also reported that the 
acidity of mango fruits decreased with the 
advancement of storage period due to conversion of 
acids into salt and sugars by enzymes. With regard 
dipping 1.0% Ca (N0 3 ) 2 retained the maximum 
level of acidity in aonla fruit (Upadhyay and Dixit, 
21). 

The maximum organoleptic ratings were 
observed under the treatment of 1 .0% Ca (Na 3 ) 2 and 
fruits were found "excellent and good" after 5 days 
and 10 days, respectively. Among the cultivars, 
NA-7 recorded maximum organoleptic value 
followed by Krishna, Kanchan and Banarasi. It may 



be assumed that higher rate of losses in weight 
during storage might have been due to raised 
energy requirement during storage. The results are 
supported by Bhalerao et al. (3) and Mir et al. (1 1). 

On the basis of findings achieved in the 
present investigation it may be concluded that 
among the treatments tried as post-harvest dip, 
1.0% Ca (N0 3 ) 2 , treatment proved most effective 
with respect to physico-chemical qualities and 
shelf-life of aonla fruits. The calcium nitrate 1.0% 
treated fruits significantly reduced the physio- 
logical loss in weight, pathological loss exhibited 
higher organoleptic rating with longer shelf-life. 
Besides, the fruits also exhibited better in quality 
on account of its favourable effect on total soluble 
solids, total sugar and in retaining more ascorbic 
acid and acidity, thereby rendering them acceptable 
upto period of 15 days. Different cultivars could be 
keep well up to 5 days with "Excellent" rating, 1 
days with "Good" rating while only NA" 7 and 
Krishna with "Fair" rating upto 15 days. 

REFERENCES 

1 . A.O.A.C. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 
Association of Analytical Chemist. Washington, 
D.C. 15 th edition. 

2. Bajpai, P.N. and Shukla, H.S. (2002). Aonla, In : 
"Fruits : Tropical and Subtropical" . Vol. II 
Publ. Naya Udyog, 206 Bidhan Sarani, 
Culcutta, pp. 527-28. 

3. Bhalerao, B.P., Desai, U.T., Masalkar, S.D. and 
Chaudhari, S.M. (1994). Effect of calcium salt, 
auxin, cytokinin and polythene packaging on 
shelf life of guava. J. Maharashtra Agri. Univ., 
19 (3) : 390-92. 

4. Chadha, K.L. (2005). Hand Book of 
Horticulture. ICAR, Krishi Anusandhan 
Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi, pp. 115-118. 

5. Chahal, T.S. and Bal, J.S. (2012). Effect of 
preharvest treatments of calcium salts on 
harvest maturity of Kinnow mandarin. 
HortFlora Res. Sped, 1(2) : 153-157. 

6. Chopra, S.K. and Nagask, G.S. (1986). Effect of 
post-harvest calcium dip on the storage quality 



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of Red Delicious apple. Hort. Set, 21 (3) : 
285-292. 

7. Faust, M. (1978). The role of calcium in the 
respiratory mechanism of apples. Collogues 
Internationaux du, center National de la 
Researche Scientifique, 238 : 87-92. 

8. Hubner, D.J. (1983). Role of cell wall 
hydrolyses in fruit softening. Hort. Res., 5 : 

169-219. 

9. Jha, K.K., Singh, Sanjay and Bramachari, V.S. 
(1998). Effect of calcium and polythene 
wrapping on storage life of mango. Indian J. 

Hort., 55 (3) : 218-222. 

10. Kumar, S., Kumar, A., Baig, M.J. and Chaubey, 
B.K. (2005). Effect of calcium on physico- 
chemical changes in aonla (Emblica officinals 
Gaertn.). Indian J. Hort., 62 (4) : 324-26. 

11. Mir, N.A., Dalai, M.A., Bhat, A.R. and Granii, 
R.I. (1996). Effect of pre-harvest spray of 
calcium and growth regulators on 
physio-chemical characteristics in relation of 
length of storage in apple. Indian J. Plant 
Physiol, 1 (1) : 52-53. 

12. Nath, V.; Singh, I.S., Sanjeev, Kumar, Pandey, 
A.K. and Kumar, S. (1992). Effect of 
post-harvest treatment on shelf-life of aonla 
fruits. Prog. Hort., 24 (1-2) : 79-82. 

13. Pathak, R.K.; Om, Hari and Dwivedi, R. (1989). 
Collection, maintenance and evaluation of aonla 
{Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) germplasm. Indian 
J. PL Genet. Resour, 9 : 81-86. 



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NDUAT, Faizabad, pp. 22-24. 

15. Roychaudhary, R.J., Kabir, S.K., Ray, D. and 
Dhua, RS. (1992). Effect of calcium of fruit 
quality of litchi. Indian J. Hort., 49 : 27-30. 

16. Saba, D.P, Sharma, B.K., Kumar, Ram and 
Thakur, S. (1993). Effect of pre-harvest 
application of calcium salts on fruit cracking 
and physico-chemical composition of fruits in 
litchi (Litchi chinensis). Orissa J. Hort., 21 
(142) : 53-56. 

17. Setty, K.G.H. (1959). Blue mould of aonla. Curr. 
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plant growth regulators on the storage life of 
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79-82. 

19. Singh, Rajpal and Kumar, Surinder (2000). 
Studies on the effect of post-harvest treatments 
on decay loss and biochemical changes during 
storage of aonla fruits cv. Chakaiya. Haryana J. 
Hort. Sci., 29 (3/4) : 178-179. 

20. Singh, Sanjay, Brahamachari, V.S. and Jha, 
K.K. (1998). Effect of calcium and polythene 
wrapping on storage life of mango. Indian J. 
Hort., 55 : 218-22. 

21. Upadhyay, M.N. and Dixit, C.K. (1996). Effect 
of various post-harvest treatments on the 
shelf-life on aonla fruits. J. Appl. Hort. 
Navasari, 2 (1-2) : 44-55. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 259-262 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




EVALUATION OF IVY GOURD (Coccinia cordifolia L.) GENOTYPES IN 
ALLAHABAD AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITION 

Hitesh Nag, Devi Singh, Vijay Bahadur and J. P. Collis 

Department of Horticulture, Allahabad School of Agriculture, SHIATS, Allahabad 



ABSTRACT: An evaluation trial on ivy gourd (Coccinia cordifolia L.) genotypes in Allahabad 
agro climatic condition was conducted at vegetable research farm, Department of Horticulture, 
SHIATS Allahabad for 16 characters i.e. days to first female flower anthesis, plant height, 
internodal length, petiole length, fruit length, fruit daimeter, average fresh fruit weight, number of 
seeds/fruit, number of fruits per plant, yield per plant, yield per hectare, TSS (°Brix) and ascorbic 
acid content. Eight genotypes of ivy gourd, namely Arka Neelachal Sabuja, Arka Neelachal 
Kunkhi, AAIIG - 1 , AAIIG - 2, AAIIG - 3, AAIIG - 4, AAIIG - 5 and AAIIG - 6 were evaluated in 
randomized block designed in three replication during 2011. The genotype AAIIG - 1 and Arka 
Neelachal Sabuja showed minimum days to female flower anthesis. The highest fruit length and 
fruit diameter were obtained by Arka Neelachal Kunkhi and AAIIG - 1, respectively and 
maximum fruit weight was exhibited by genotypes AAIIG - 1 . The most promising genotype was 
AAIIG - 1 for maximum number of fruit per plant and fruit yield per plant followed by Arka 
Neelachal Sabuja. 

Keywords: Ivy gourd evaluation, high yielding, genotypes, anthesis. 



Ivy gourd (Coccinia cordifolia L.) is an 
underexploited cucurbitaceous perennial vegetable 
crop. It is an aggressively climbing vine that spread 
quickly over trees, shrubs, fences or other supports. 
It is grown mostly in homestead farms for tender 
fruits in almost all regions of the country. Immature 
fruits are used for cooking which are rich sources of 
carbohydrates, protein and vitamin A & C, 
Medicinally this vegetable is gaining importance 
among diabetic patients. It bears fruits almost 
throughout the year where mild winter prevails. In 
regions where severe winter occurs, it bears fruit 
for 8-9 months. Although this is considered as a an 
underutilized vegetable, it is grown extensively in 
Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Bihar and Karnataka on 
a commercial scale and giving remunerative returns 
to farmers. Availability of better cultivars and 
knowledge of many other preparations and uses of 
this crop can propel its evolution from an 
underutilized species to an important horticultural 
crop in Indian agriculture. But unfortunately till 
today no systematic research has been initiated in 
university and private institutions. Hence the 
evaluation trial on ivy gourd (Coccinia cordifolia 
L.) genotypes was initiated at Department of 



Horticulture, SHIATS, Allahabad to help the 
vegetable growers. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The investigation was carried out during 2011 
at Department of Horticulture, Allahabad School of 
Agriculture, SHIATS, Allahabad. Eight genotypes 
were collected from Orissa, Chhattisgarh and 
Allahabad and planted in single row planting in 
randomized block design with three replications on 
vegetable research farm. Each experimental unit 
was represented 10 plants spaced at 1 meter, row 
spaced 1.5 meter and the plants were trained on 
trellis system. The fertilizer dose of 60:40:40 kg 
NPK/ha was given in 3 equal installments at every 
30 days. Observation on growth parameters-days to 
first female flower anthesis, plant height, internodal 
length, petiole length (Table 1), yield parameters 
fruit length, fruit daimeter, average fresh fruits 
weight, number of seed/fruit, number of fruits per 
plant, yield per plant, yield per hectare (Table 2) 
and quality parameters-TSS and ascorbic acid 
(Table 3) were recorded on 5 plants from every 
genotype in each replication. The data was 
subjected to statistical analysis as suggested by 
Panse and Sukhatme (4). 



Received: 27.4.2012 



Accepted: 07.5.2012 



260 



Nag et al. 



Table 1: Mean performance of Ivy gourd genotypes for growth parameters. 



s. 

No. 


Genotype 


Days to first 

female flower 

anthesis 


Plant height 
(cm) 


Internodal 
length (cm) 


Petiole length 
(cm) 


1 


Arka Neelachal Sabuja 


39.33 


369.00 


11.10 


3.90 


2 


Arka Neelachal Kunkhi 


56.67 


296.67 


07.83 


2.53 


3 


AAIIG-1 


39.33 


289.77 


10.10 


4.10 


4 


AAIIG-2 


46.00 


318.55 


12.47 


6.63 


5 


AAIIG-3 


44.00 


322.00 


11.77 


5.73 


6 


AAIIG-4 


51.33 


293.67 


08.57 


3.57 


7 


AAIIG-5 


43.33 


255.00 


06.60 


6.60 


8 


AAIIG-6 


41.00 


310.00 


08.17 


8.17 




CD. (P = 0.05) 


7.16 


54.59 


1.01 


0.77 



Table 2: Mean performance of Ivy gourd genotypes for yield parameters. 



s. 

No. 


Genotype 


Fruit 

length 

(cm) 


Fruit 

diameter 

(cm) 


Average 

fresh 

fruit 

weight 

(g) 


Number 

of seeds/ 

fruit 


Number 
of fruits 
/ plant 


Yield 
per 

plant 
(kg) 


Yield 

per 

hectare 

(t) 


1 


Arka Neelachal Sabuja 


6.17 


2.80 


26.00 


206.00 


365.33 


5.98 


14.95 


2 


Arka Neelachal Kunkhi 


8.27 


1.97 


18.00 


182.67 


210.00 


3.10 


07.76 


3 


AAIIG-1 


5.40 


3.05 


27.67 


243.33 


428.00 


7.81 


19.51 


4 


AAIIG-2 


4.50 


2.70 


20.64 


165.33 


251.33 


3.45 


08.63 


5 


AAIIG-3 


5.30 


2.94 


26.67 


188.00 


272.33 


4.11 


10.27 


6 


AAIIG-4 


5.67 


2.24 


18.00 


149.33 


286.00 


4.07 


10.23 


7 


AAIIG-5 


5.93 


2.09 


16.00 


176.67 


188.00 


2.82 


07.06 


8 


AAIIG-6 


4.33 


2.04 


09.67 


143.67 


218.67 


3.03 


07.59 




CD. (P=0.05) 


0.45 


0.24 


4.99 


18.14 


53.59 


0.56 


1.40 



Table 3: Mean performance of Ivy gourd genotypes for quality parameters. 



S. No. 


Genotype 


TSS (°Brix) 


Ascorbic Acid 


B : C ratio 


1 


Arka Neelachal Sabuja 


3.70 


14.70 


2.74 


2 


Arka Neelachal Kunkhi 


2.90 


12.70 


1.42 


3 


AAIIG-1 


4.06 


15.37 


3.58 


4 


AAIIG-2 


3.28 


14.33 


1.58 


5 


AAIIG-3 


3.07 


13.90 


1.89 


6 


AAIIG-4 


2.75 


13.27 


1.88 


7 


AAIIG-5 


3.28 


12.87 


1.30 


8 


AAIIG-6 


2.87 


12.27 


1.39 




CD. (P=0.05) 


0.26 


0.42 





Evaluation of ivy gourd (Coccinia cordifolia L.) genotypes in Allahabad agro climatic condition 



261 




AA1IG-1 







Arka Neelachal Kunkhi 



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Growth attributing characters of Ivy gourd 
(Table 1) like days to first female flower anthesis 
was singnificantly more in Arka Neelachal Kunkhi 
(56.67 days) and least was noticed in AAIIG -1 
(39.33 days) and Arka Neelachal Sabuja (39.33 
days). Plant height was singnificantly more in Arka 
Neelachal Sabuja (369 cm), whereas in AAIIG - 1 
it was 289.11 cm and least was noticed in AAIIG - 
5 (255 cm). The variation in plant height might 



have been due to internodal length, petiole length, 
genetic characters and morphological characters. 
Similar result was recorded by Dharmatti et al. (2). 

Internodal length was significantly more in 
AAIIG -2 (12.47 cm) followed by AAIIG- 1 (10.1 
cm) and least was noticed in AAIIG - 5 (6.6 cm). 
Petiole length was signicficantly more in AAIIG - 
6 (8.17 cm) and least was noticed in Arka 
Neelachal Kunkhi (2.53 cm). Similar opinions were 
expressed by Maharana et al. (3) in spine gourd. 

The yield attributing characters (Table 2) like 
fruit length, fruit diameter, average fresh fruit 
weight, number of seeds per fruit, number of 
fruits/plant directly influence on the yield/plant and 
yield/ha. The fruit length was significantly more in 
Arka Neelachal Kunkhi (8.27 cm) followed by 
Arka Neelachal Sabuja (6.17 cm) whereas in 
AAIIG - 1 it was 5.4 cm and least was noticed in in 
AAIIG-6 (4.33 cm). Fruit diameter was 
significantly more in AAIIG - 1 (3.05 cm) and least 
was noticed in Arka Neelachal Kunkhi (1.97 cm). 
The variation in fruit length might have been due to 
internodal length, plant height, genetic characters 
and morphological characters. Similar results were 
recorded by Dharmatti et al. (2). 

The data indicate that average fresh fruit 
weight of AAIIG - 1 (27.67 g) was significantly 
superior than the other genotypes and less fruit 
weight was observed in AAIIG - 6 (9.67 g) 
confirming to results of Dharmatti et al. (2). 

Number of seeds/fruit was significantly more 
in AAIIG - 1 (243.33) followed by Arka Neelachal 
Sabuja (206) and least was noticed in AAIIG - 6 
(143.67) supporting the finding Bhave et al. (1) in 
bitter gourd. 

Number of fruits/plant was significantly more 
in AAIIG - 1 (428) followed by Arka Neelachal 
Sabuja (265.33) and least was noticed in AAIIG - 5 
(188). The variation in number of fruits per plant 
might have been due to internodal length, plant 
height, genetical variation and morphological 
characters. Similar result was recorded by 
Dharmatti et al. (2). 



262 



Nag et al. 



Among the 8 genotypes, AAIIG - 1 produced 
significantly higher fruit yield/plant during first 1 5 
harvesting. The average fruit yield/plant of AAIIG 
- 1 genotypes was 7.81 kg followed by Arka 
Neelachal Sabuja (5.98 kg) and least was noticed in 
AAIIG - 5 (2.82 kg). Similar trend was noticed for 
yield/ha. The genotype AAIIG - 1 was recorded 
significantly higher yield/ha as compared to other 
genotypes. The average yield/ha of AAIIG - 1 
genotype was 19.51 t/ha followed by Arka 
Neelachal Sabuja (14.95 t/ha) and least was noticed 
in AAIIG - 5 (7.06 t/ha). These results were in 
accordance with Dharmatti et al. (2). 

The quality parameters of Ivy gourd fruit 
(Table 3) revealed that the genotype AAIIG -1 was 
significantly superior for all the traits. The more 
TSS and ascorbic acid were observed in AAIIG - 1 
(4.06 °Brix, 15.37 mg/ 100 g fruit pulp) followed 
by Arka Neelachal Sabuja (3.70 °Brix, 14.7 mg/ 
100 g fruit pulp). The least TSS was observed in 
AAIIG - 4 (2.75 °Brix) and least ascorbic acid was 
observed in AAIIG - 6 (12.27 mg/ 100 g fruit pulp). 
Similar results were reported by Ramchandaran and 
Gopalkrishnann (5) in bitter gourd. 

CONCLUSION 

From the present investigation it was 
concluded that the ivy gourd genotype "AAIIG - 1" 



resulted in the highest fruit diameter, fresh fruit 
weight, number of fruits per plant, yield per plant, 
yield per hectare, TSS, ascorbic acid and Benefit 
Cost ratio (3.58) followed by genotypes Arka 
Neelachal Sabuja giving higher yield per plant and 
yield per hectare, respectively. 

REFERENCES 

1. Bhave, S.G., Mehta, J.L., Bendale, V.W., 
Mhatre, P.P. and Pethe, U.B., (2002). Character 
association and path coefficient analysis of 
bitter gourd {Momordica charantia L.). The 
Orissa J. Hort, 31(1). 

2. Dharmatti, P. R., Patil, R.V., Patil, S. S. and 
Athani, S. I., (2002-06). A new Coccinia 
{Coccinia indica L.) variety DRC-1 : a Boon to 
vegetable growers. Karnataka J. Agric. ScL, 21 
(1) : 99-103. 

3. Maharana, U.K., Tripathy, P. and Maharana, T. 
(1995). Genetic variability and heritability 
studies in spine gourd. Curr. Res., 24:7: 
122-124. 

4. Panse, V. G. and Sukhatme, P. V. (1967) 
Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers. II 
nd Ed. ICAR, New Delhi. 

5. Ramchandran, C. and Gopalakrishnan, PK. 
(1980). Variability studies for biochemical traits 
in bitter gourd. Agri. Res. J. Kerala, 18:27-32. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 263-266 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




STUDY ON POST-HARVEST LIFE OF CUT ROSE CV. FIRST RED AS 
AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT CHEMICALS AND WRAPPING MATERIALS 

Jitendra Kumar, Anis Mirza and Krishan Pal 

Department of Horticulture, University Teaching Departments, CCS University Campus, 
Meerut-250 004 Uttar Pradesh 
E-mail : dhakal968@gmail.com 

ABSTRACT: An investigation was carried out to find the effect of different chemicals as pulsing 
solutions (CaCI 2 1%, Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm, Sucrose 3% + AI 2 (S0 4 ) 3 300 ppm for 
duration of 20 and 24 h) and wrapping materials (Newspaper, Butter paper and Cellophane 
sheet for duration of 16 h) on the quality and vase life of cut rose cv. First Red. Results obtained 
show that all treatments performed better than that of control. Among all the treatments, A 2 C 2 
(cut rose pulsed with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 1 50 ppm for 20 h and packaged with Butter paper for 
16 h) recorded the maximum increase in quality and vase life of 12.34 days. Whereas the 
treatments A 2 C (pulsed with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h only) and A C 2 (packaged 
with Butter paper for 1 6 h only) recorded a vase life of 1 1 . 1 3 days and 1 1 .02 days, respectively. 
However, in control treatment (A C ) the vase life recorded was 8.53 days. 



Keywords : Cut rose, pulsing, wrapping, duration, 

Rose is one of the major cut flower, well 
adapted to various climatic conditions and occupies 
the premier position in the domestic and 
international markets. Cut rose are highly 
perishable in nature and need to be treated to 
improve their vase life and postharvest quality. 
They are deprived of their natural sources of water 
and nutrients after harvest. The major constraints in 
export of cut roses from our country are poor 
packaging, inadequate facilities in transport and 
treatments required to facilitate prolonged shelf 
life. Added and ideal package is necessary to 
maintain low rate of respiration and transpiration. It 
is therefore, important to workout postharvest 
management of roses to minimize losses and make 
rose growing more remunerative (Bhattacharjee, 2). 
Hence, present study was undertaken to find out the 
response of effective pulsing solution and suitable 
packaging materials to prolong the vase life of cut 
rose cv. First Red. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The experiment was conducted in the research 
laboratory of Department of Horticulture, CCS 
University Campus Meerut during 2007-2008. The 
cultivar First Red of cut rose was procured from 



post-harvest life 

Ikram 'G' Florist, Begum Bridge Meerut. The cut 
rose stems were harvested early in the morning at 
tight bud stage between 7.00-8.30 am and were 
brought to the laboratory by placing them in a 
bucket containing fresh water. The flowers were 
recut to a uniform length of 35 cm and only three 
uppermost leaves were retained. The maximum and 
minimum temperatures fluctuated between 
17-22°C and relative humidity was 60-75% during 
the course of investigation. The different 
chemicals/pulsing solutions used for pulsing cut 
rose stems are CaCl 2 1% (Ai), Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 
150 ppm (A 2 ), Sucrose 3% + A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 300 ppm 
(A 3 ) for duration of 20 h and 24 h and different 
wrapping materials used for packaging are 
Newspaper (C), Butter paper (C 2 ) and Cellophane 
sheet (C) for duration of 16 h. After different 
treatments of pulsing and packaging the cut rose 
stems were kept individually in equal sized test 
tubes containing 60 ml of distilled water for vase 
life evaluation. However, the control treatment 
A Co, where no pulsing or packaging was done, the 
stems were directly placed in distilled water for 
evaluation. The present experiment was laid out in 
factorial randomized block design consisting of 
sixteen treatments, each of them replicated thrice. 
Observations were recorded changes in fresh 



Received: 19.6.2012 



Accepted: 28.6.2012 



264 



Kumar et al. 



weight, flower diameter, water uptake and vase life 
of cut rose stems. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

All the pulsing and wrapping treatments were 
found to be superior over the control treatment 
(Table 1). Among all the treatment combinations of 
pulsing and wrapping, A 2 C 2 (flowers pulsed with 
Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and 
packaged with Butter paper for 1 6 h) recorded the 
highest gain in fresh weight of 2.71 g followed by 
2.59 g in A 2 C 3 (pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 
150 ppm for 20 h and packaging with Cellophane 
sheet for 16 h) and 2.50 g in A 3 C 2 (pulsing with 
Sucrose 3% + A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 300 ppm for 24 h and 
packaging with Butter paper for 1 6 h) on 3 rd day in 
vase as revealed in Table 1. The increase in fresh 
weight before senescence was also reported by Pal 
et al. (10). However, the treatments A 2 Co (pulsing 
with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and no 
packaging) and A C 2 (no pulsing but packaging 
with Butter paper for 16 h) recorded the gain in 
fresh weight of 2.29 g and 1.90 g respectively on 
3rd day as shown in Table 1. Similar reports of gain 
in fresh weight and vase life of cut rose have been 
reported by Beaura and Singh (1), Srivastava et al., 
(14) and Paine and Paine (9). In control treatment 
A C , gain in fresh weight recorded was 1.10 g. 

The least reduction in fresh weight at 
senescence recorded was -1.33 g in treatment A 2 C 2 
(pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 
h and packaging with Butter paper for 16 h) 
followed by -1.52 g in A 2 C 3 (pulsing with Sucrose 
5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and packaging with 
Cellophane sheet for 16 h) as revealed in Table 1. 
However, in treatments A 2 C (pulsing with Sucrose 
5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and no packaging) 
and A C 2 (no pulsing with Butter paper packaging) 
the reduction in fresh weight of -2.37 g and -2.46 g 
at senescence was observed. In control treatment 
A C , the reduction in fresh weight at senescence 
was -2.96 g (Table 1). Similar report of least 
reduction in fresh weight at senescence was 
reported by Singh (12). Matile and Winkenbach (7) 
reported the loss in fresh weight at senescence due 



to reduced level of starch and proteins. Similarly 
Nowak and Rudnicki (8) reported that 
microorganism growing in vase water cause 
vascular blockage and produce ethylene, which 
accelerates senescence in cut flowers. 

Data (Table 1) indicates that the maximum 
flower diameter of 3.38 cm on 3 ld day in vase was 
recorded in treatment A 2 C 2 (pulsing with Sucrose 
5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and packaging with 
Butter paper for 16 h) followed by 3.28 cm in A 2 C 3 
(pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 
h and packaging with Cellophane sheet for 16 h) 
and 3.20 cm in A 3 C 2 (pulsing with Sucrose 3% + 
A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 300 ppm for 24 h and packaging with 
Butter paper for 16 h). However, the treatments 
A 2 C (pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm 
for 20 h and no packaging) and A C 2 (no pulsing 
with Butter paper packaging for 1 6 h ) recorded the 
maximum flower diameter of 3.08 cm and 3.03 cm 
on 3 rd day as shown in Table 1 . In control treatment 
A C , the flower diameter on 3rd day recorded was 
2.94 cm (Table 1). The maximum flower diameter 
after complete opening 4.31 cm was recorded in 
treatment A 2 C 2 (pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 
150 ppm for 20 h and packaging with Butter paper 
for 1 6 h) followed by 4. 1 8 cm in A 2 C 3 (pulsing with 
Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and 
packaging with Cellophane sheet for 16 h) and 4.04 
in A 3 C 2 (pulsing with Sucrose 3% + A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 300 
ppm for 24 h and packaging with Butter paper for 
16 h) as evident from Table 1. However, the 
treatments A 2 C (pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 
150 ppm for 20 h and no packaging) and A C 2 (no 
pulsing with butter paper packaging for 16 h) 
recorded the flower diameter of 3.82 cm and 3.78 
cm after complete opening. In control treatment 
(A Co), the flower diameter after complete opening 
recorded was 3.68 cm (Table 1). Similar results of 
increase in flower diameter were reported by De 
and Bhattacharjee (3), Sivaswamy and 
Bhattacharjee (13) and Beaura and Singh (1). 

The maximum water uptake on 3 rd day 12.89 
ml was recorded in treatment A 2 C 2 (cut roses 
pulsed with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h 



Post-harvest life of cut rose as affected by different chemicals and wrapping materials 265 

Table 1: Post-harvest life of cut rose cv. First Red as affected by different chemicals and wrapping materials. 





Changes 


in Fresh 


Changes in Flower 


Changes in Water 




Treatment 


Weig 


W(g) 


Diameter (cm) 


Uptake (ml) 


Vase Life 
(days) 


on the 3 rd 


at sene- 


on the 3 rd 


after 


on the 3 rd 


at sene- 




day in 


scence 


day in 


complete 


day in 


scence 






vase 


day 


vase 


opening 


vase 


day 




A,C, 


2.31 


-2.33 


3.09 


3.86 


11.10 


31.07 


11.19 


A,C 2 


2.46 


-2.14 


3.16 


3.95 


11.72 


31.82 


11.52 


A,C 3 


2.46 


-2.20 


3.12 


3.92 


11.36 


31.40 


11.50 


A,C 


2.15 


-2.40 


3.03 


3.78 


10.99 


30.84 


11.05 


A 2 C, 


2.43 


-2.25 


3.11 


3.91 


11.36 


31.14 


11.43 


A 2 C 2 


2.71 


-1.33 


3.38 


4.31 


12.89 


33.66 


12.34 


A 2 C 3 


2.59 


-1.52 


3.28 


4.18 


12.11 


32.82 


12.14 


A 2 C 


2.29 


-2.37 


3.08 


3.82 


11.05 


31.03 


11.13 


A 3 C, 


2.49 


-2.07 


3.19 


4.03 


11.77 


32.40 


11.60 


A 3 C 2 


2.50 


-1.91 


3.20 


4.04 


12.03 


32.68 


11.74 


A 3 C 3 


2.42 


-2.32 


3.10 


3.91 


11.22 


31.10 


11.23 


A 3 C 


2.27 


-2.38 


3.07 


3.80 


11.02 


30.93 


11.12 


A C, 


1.25 


-2.91 


3.01 


3.73 


10.76 


30.06 


10.87 


A C 2 


1.90 


-2.46 


3.03 


3.78 


10.96 


30.82 


11.02 


A C 3 


1.25 


-2.67 


3.02 


3.76 


10.92 


30.48 


10.97 


A Co 


1.10 


-2.96 


2.94 


3.68 


10.74 


29.21 


8.53 


CD (P=0.05) 


0.39 


0.42 


0.02 


0.03 


0.34 


2.11 


0.17 



and packaged with Butter paper for 1 6 h) followed 
by 12.11 ml in A 2 C 3 (flowers pulsed with Sucrose 
5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and packaged with 
Cellophane sheet for 16 h) and 12.03 ml in A3C2 
(pulsing with Sucrose 3% + A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 300 ppm for 
24 h and packaging with Butter paper for 1 6 h) as 
revealed in Table 1 . However, the treatments A 2 Co 
(pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 
h and no packaging) and A C 2 (no pulsing with 
Butter paper packaging for 16 h) recorded the 
maximum water uptake of 11.05 ml and 10.96 ml 
on 3rd day in vase as shown in Table 1. In control 
treatment A C (no pulsing and no packaging), the 
water uptake on 3 rd day recorded was 10.74 ml 
(Table 1). The maximum water uptake 33.66 ml at 
senescence was recorded in treatment A 2 C 2 
(pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 
h and packaging with Butter paper for 16 h) 
followed by 32.82 ml in A 2 C 3 (pulsing with 
Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and 



packaging with Cellophane sheet for 16 h) and 
32.68 ml in A 3 C 2 (pulsing with Sucrose 3% + 
A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 300 ppm for 24 h and packaging with 
Butter paper for 16 h) as evident from Table 1. 
However, the treatments A 2 C (pulsing with 
Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and no 
packaging) and A C 2 (no pulsing with butter paper 
packaging for 16 h) recorded the water uptake of 
31.03 ml and 30.82 ml at senescence (Table 1) In 
control treatment A Co, the water uptake at 
senescence recorded was 29.21 ml. 

Increased water uptake was achieved by 
maintenance of cell integrity which was also 
confirmed by Halevy and Mayak (4). Similar 
results of increase in water uptake were reported by 
Jothi and Balakrishnamoorthy (5) and Reddy et ah 
(11). 

Data (Table 1) indicates that the maximum 
vase life 12.34 days was recorded in treatment A 2 C 2 



266 



Kumar et al. 



(pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 
h and packaging with Butter paper for 16 h) 
followed by 12.14 days in A 2 C 3 (pulsing with 
Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm for 20 h and 
packaging with Cellophane sheet for 16 h) and 
11.74 days in A 3 C 2 (pulsing with Sucrose 3% + 
A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 300 ppm for 24 h and packaging with 
Butter paper for 16 h). However, the treatments 
A 2 C (pulsing with Sucrose 5% + 8HQC 150 ppm 
for 20 h and no packaging) and A C 2 (no pulsing 
with Butter paper packaging for 1 6 h) recorded the 
vase life of 1 1 . 1 3 days and 1 1 .02 days, respectively. 
In control treatment A Co, the maximum vase life 
recorded was 8.53 days (Table 1). 

Similarly Jothi and Balakrishnamoorthy (5) 
reported that quality and longevity of cut rose can 
be improved by treating them with specific pulsing 
solutions and packaging materials. According to 
Kaul (6) the chemicals 8HQC and alumunium 
sulphate directly improved the vase life by 
minimizing bacterial damages and acidifying the 
vase solution. The water retention property of 
Butter paper is better than the other uncoated 
papers and is hygroscopic in nature (Paine and 
Paine, 9). Cellophane sheet has thin foil which 
permits partial gas exchange, thus preventing injury 
due to excess C0 2 (Bhattacharjee, 2). 

REFERENCES 

1. Beaura, S. and Singh, R. (2001). Effect of 
pulsing before storage on postharvest life of 
gladiolus. J. Orna. Hort., 4 (2): 91-94. 

2. Bhattacharjee, S. K. (1997). Packaging fresh cut 
flowers. Indian Hort., Mar, p :23-27. 

3. De, L. C. and Bhattacharjee, S. K. (1998). 
Postharvest life of cut rose cv. Raktagandha as 
affected by pulsing with various chemicals. The 
Hort. J., 11 (2): 93-99. 

4. Halevy, A. H. and Mayak, S. (1981). 
Senescence and postharvest physiology of cut 
flowers. Part I. In: Horticultural Reviews, Vol. 
II, AVI Publishing Westport, Conn. pp. 59-143. 



5. Jothi, L. J. and Balakrishnamoorthy, G. (1999). 
Effect of pulsing and packaging materials on 
postharvest life of cut rose cv. Happiness. South 
Indian Hort., 47 (1-6): 361-363. 

6. Kaul, G. L. (1989). Postharvest handling of cut 
flowers. In: Short course on production technol. 
for floricultural crops. Division of floriculture 
and landscaping, IARI: 178-188. 

7. Matile, P. and Winkenbach, F. (1971). Function 
of lysosomes and lysosomal enzymes in 
senescing corolla of morning glory. J. Exp. 
Botany, 122: 759-771. 

8. Nowak, J. and Rudnicki, R. M. (1990). 
Postharvest handling and storage of cut flowers, 
florist greens and potted plants. Timber press, 
Portland, U.S.A. 

9. Paine, F. A. and Paine, H. Y. (1992). Ch.3. Notes 
on packaging materials, in 'A handbook of Food 
packaging' 2 nd edition, Blackcie Academic and 
Profesional, pp: 53-96. 

10. Pal, A., Kumar, S. and Srivastava, R (2003). 
Effect of floral preservatives on postharvest 
management in gladiolus spikes. J. Orna. Hort., 
6 (4): 367-371. 

11. Reddy, B. S., Singh, K and Singh, A. (1995). 
Effect of sucrose, citric acid and hydroxy- 
qunoline on the postharvest physiology of 
tuberose cv. Single Adv. Agri. Res. in India, 3: 
10, 161-167. 

12. Singh, A. (2006). Standardization of 
postharvest technologies in gladiolus cut spikes. 
Ph.D Thesis submitted to the Department of 
Horticulture, CCS. Univ., Mrt, 06-2006. 

13. Sivaswamy, N. and Bhattacharjee, S. K. (2000). 
Influence of cold storage on postharvest life and 
quality of cut rose cv. Raktagandha. Indian J. 
Hort, 57 (2): 172-177. 

14. Srivastava, R., Kundal, K. and Jauhari, S. 
(2005). Effect of pulsing solution, packaging 
material and storage duration on postharvest life 
of gladiolus. J. Orna. Hort., 8 (2): 115-118. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 267-269 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




FABA BEAN: UNIQUE GERMPLASM EXPLORED AND IDENTIFIED 

Anil Kumar Singh and B.P. Bhatt 

ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region Patna-800 014 Bihar 



ABSTRACT: The germplasm contains promising traits related to yield and yield attributing 
characters, quality characters and also resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. 
Exploration for collection of germplasm of diverse nature is the quickest and simplest method for 
acquiring the desired one. 71 accessions of faba bean were collected from Bihar and evaluated. 
Unique germplasm explored and identified and notable among them are salt resistant lines 
explored and collected from Vaishali district of Bihar. One germplasm line having four pods per 
nod and another one bear fruits right from collar region were identified during the course of 
characterizations and evaluation. These promising and unique accessions will be used by 
breeders/ crop improvement workers in the country for its evaluation and further utilization in 
their ongoing/ensuing crop improvement works for strengthening food and nutritional security of 
country. 

Keywords: Faba bean, germplasm, collection, identification, exploration. 



Faba bean is an important legume consumed 
throughout the world. The cultivated forms of faba 
bean are grown in different agroclimatic conditions 
depending upon the suitability of the accessions to 
a particular area. However, in general the cultivars 
(as in most other crops) are susceptible to many 
biotic and abiotic stresses leading to lower yields of 
the crop. It becomes imperative to look for 
resources which can provide resistance to such 
stresses. This would mean broadening the genetic 
base of the cultivars which is essential for starting 
any breeding program for crop improvement. Wild 
relatives of faba bean, possessing such genes/traits 
imparting resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses 
would be ideal for plant breeders (Torres et ah, 6). 
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is also known as broad 
bean, horse bean, field bean, Windsor bean in 
various languages, in Hindi it is popularly known 
Kala Matar and Bakala. It is one of the oldest crops 
having long tradition of cultivation in old world 
agriculture. Globally, faba bean {Vicia faba L.) is 
third most important feed grain legume after 
soybean {Glycine max) and pea {Pisum sativum L.) 
with a total production of 4.87 MT and harvested 
area of 2.63 Mha, as reported by Mihailovic et al. 
(3). Faba bean is seen as an agronomically viable 
alternative to cereal grains. Faba bean, being a 
legume, is a nitrogen-fixing plant are capable of 
fixing atmospheric nitrogen, which results in 



increased residual soil nitrogen for use by 
subsequent crops. It is one of the best annual crop 
which can be used as green manure having 
potential of fixing free nitrogen (100-3 5 0kg N /ha). 
It can be grown in adverse soil conditions (soil pH). 
Faba bean are grown during winter in subtropical 
and warmer temperate climates on water remaining 
after crops such as maize and sorghum. Though the 
crop is widely adapted to diverse soil types, and is 
more tolerant towards acidic as well as saline 
alkaline soils than most legumes. Being so 
incredible crop, unfortunately in India it is 
categorized as minor, underutilized, less utilized, 
and still not fully exploited crops. It's only because 
of lack of cultivar. Only two varieties namely 
"Pusa Sumit" (released in 1998 by IARI) and 
"Vikrant" (VH-82-1) released in 1999 by HAU, 
Hisar) have been released at all India level so for. 
Lack of faba bean improved variety lead to 
undertake this project to develop new faba bean 
variety for food and nutritional security of Eastern 
Region. 

Greater insight into the pattern and dynamics 
of genetic resources of faba bean {Vicia faba L.) is 
needed in order to understanding and establishing 
the relationship among collected gennplasm from 
Bihar region. Characterization and preliminary 
evaluation is the one of the important technique 
which helps in to elucidate the extent and pattern of 



Received: 17.6.2012 



Acceptance : 28.6.2012 



268 



Singh and Bhatt 



^ 



IkimihlM sm|4si 




Fig. 1 : Faba bean germplasm being evaluated 
under field conditions. 



agro-morphological as well as molecular diversity 
in this crop. The diversity assessment of the 
germplasm available also serves as a tool in 
devising proper conservation strategies. The 'hot 
spots' for the diversity can be identified among 
different landraces to prioritize their conservation. 
For both ex-situ as well as in-situ conservation the 
knowledge of the extent of diversity present is a 
prerequisite (Bond, 1). Genotyping or germplasm 
analysis is required for correct placement of the 
species into the genepools that can be used in 
breeding programes. V. faba does not have a 
secondary gene pool as its wild relatives are not 
known and the distantly related Vicia species viz. V. 
narbonensis, V. hyaeniscyamus, V. galilaea, V. 
johannis, and V. bithynic constitutes its tertiary 
gene pool (Zohary and Hopf, 7; Cubero, 2 and 
Muehlbauer et ah, 4). Absence of the secondary 
gene pool further underscores the importance of 
phenotypic as well as genotypic diversity 
assessment of the primary gene pool. Because of 
this technical difficulties of achieving interspecific 
crosses with V. faba, only natural variability is 
available to breeders It is necessary to have 
knowledge of the diversity present in the 
germplasm to be used in its breeding programmes 
and its analysis by genotyping and phenotyping 
will be of great benefit to breeders. It enables them 
to develop varieties or cultivars suited to different 



agroclimatic zones or different seasons. Faba bean 
is susceptible to many pests and pathogens and to 
different abiotic stresses. The resistant germplasm 
identified among the germplasm is used for 
development of resistant varieties. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Total 71 accessions were collected during the 
designated exploration. All the accessions, which 
were collected from this exploration, were planted 
at main research farm of ICAR Research Complex 
for Eastern Region for evaluation. November 
planted crop generally flowers in January- February 
and complete its lifecycle in the month of March. 
The field evaluation (Fig.l) was conducted during 
Rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11. All the 
accessions were given equal care. Unique 
germplasm explored and collected and further 
identified. The unique germplasm having traits of 
economic importance is described as under : 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Salt resistant faba bean line explored 

An exploration trip was undertaken to collect 
available gennplasm in the Vaishali District of 
Bihar to strengthen faba bean germplasm 
collections. At Chakramdas this salt resistant line 
(Fig. 2) of faba bean has been explored and 
collected. Only few plants of faba bean were 
present on white crusted field. Though this crop 
was sown as mixed cropped with mustard which is 
a tolerant to salinity but failed grossly even to 
germinate under such soil conditions where these 
plants were surviving enough. 

Evaluation and identification of promising traits 

In order to efficiently use of faba bean 
germplasm in breeding program, genetic diversity 
and main characters were assessed in a collection of 
71 faba bean germplasm from Bihar. The result 
showed that the germplasm resources had high 
genetic diversity, with a quality (Singh et ai, 5). 
Tow unique germplasm has been identified as 
mentioned below. 



Faba bean : unique germplasm explored and identified 



269 




Salt resistant faba bean line explored from 
Vaishali District of Bihar. 



Faba bean lines bear's four pods per node: 

Total 71 accessions were screened and 
evaluated for various agro-morphological and yield 
attributes, seed yield and quality. One line has been 
identified having four pods per node (Fig. 3). This 
character is very unique as this is not very 
commonly seen feature. This trait may be utilized 
for further faba bean improvement programme. 




Fig. 3 : Faba bean accession bearing four 
pods per node. 

Faba bean line bear's pods from collar regions 

One line among the other promising lines was 
found bearing pod right from collar region (Fig 4). 




Fig. 4 : Faba bean line bear's pods from 
collar region. 

This trait is very important for improving 
production potential, as this line recorded 95.5 to 
121 g seed yield per plant. 

REFERENCES 

1. Bond, D. A. (1976). Field bean Vicia faba. In: 
Simmonds, N. W. (eds.), Evolution of Crop 
Plants. Longman, London, UK. pp. 179-182. 

2. Cubero, J. I. (1974). On the evolution of Vicia 
faba. Theor. and Appl Genet., 45: 47-51. 

3. Mihailovic V., Mikise A., Cupina B. and Eriae P. 
(2005). Field pea and vetches in Serbia and 
Montenegro. Grain Legumes, AA: 25-26. 

4. Muehlbauer F. J., Kaiser W. J., Simon C. J. 
(1994). Potential for wild species in cool season 
food legume breeding. Euphytica, 73 : 1 09- 114. 

5. Torres, A.M., Roman, B., Avila, CM., Satovic, 
Z., Rubiales, D., Sillero, J.C., Cubero, J.I., 
Moreno, M.T. (2006). Faba bean breeding for 
resistance against biotic stresses: towards 
application of marker technology. Euphytica, 
147: 67-80. 

6. Singh, A. K. and Bhatt, B. P. (Eds.). (2012). 
Faba Bean {Vicia faba L.): A potential 
leguminous crop of India. ICAR, RCER Patna. 
P. 517 + XL 

7. Zohary, D. and Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication 
of plants in the old world: The origin and spread 
of cultivated plants in West Africa, Europe and 
the Nile valley. Oxford University Press New 
York USA. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 270-273 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT SPACING AND SALICYLIC ACID LEVELS ON 
GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF GLADIOLUS (Gladiolus grandiflora L.) 

Mani Ram, Virendra Pal 1 , Manoj Kumar Singh and Mukesh Kumar 

Deptt. of Horticulture, SVPUAT, Meerut-250 110 
'Directorate of Extension, K.V.K. Baghpat (SVPUAT, Meerut) 



ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of spacing and salicylic acid 
levels on vegetative growth and flowering of gladiolus cv. White Properity at HRC, SVPUAT, 
Meerut. The three levels of spacing (20 x 10, 20 x 20, and 20 x 30 cm) and three levels of 
salicylic acid ( 0, 50 and 100 ppm) were used in randomized block design (RBD) with three 
replications. Out of these a optimum spacing 20 x 20 cm was found superior with 100 ppm 
salicylic acid concentration in respect of number of leaves, leaf length (cm), days to opening of 
1 st floret and visibility of first spike, spike length, and number of florets per spike. 



Keywords : Gladiolus, spacing, salicylic acid, spike 

Gladiolus is a popular cut flower crop 
belonging to family Iridaceae which is originated 
from South Africa. The cut flower is popular for its 
attractive spikes having florets for huge form, 
dazzling colours, varying sizes and long keeping 
quality. Due to its longer vase life, it is used in 
various floral arrangements like vase-arrangement, 
bouquet, hall arrangement, dice arrangement etc. It 
is a most important flowering plant having fourth 
rank in international market in world cut flower 
trade. Now-a-days, it is gaining fast popularity in 
India because the use of its flowers for floral 
arrangements in metro cites. Therefore, the demand 
of gladiolus is increasing in international as well as 
domestic market due to it high value. 

Quality flower production of gladiolus is a big 
challenge for our florist. To obtain good material of 
gladiolus spacing plays an important role for good 
growth, quality spikes and cormel production 
(Bijimol and Singh, 1). Keeping in view the present 
study was carried out to find out the optimum level 
of spacing and salicylic acid dose for vegetative 
growth and high quality cut spikes of gladiolus cv. 
White Prosperity. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

An experiment on the effect of spacing and 
salicylic acid levels on vegetative growth and 
flowering of gladilous (Gladiolus grandiflora L.) 



yield. 

cv. White Prosperity was carried out at Horticulture 
Research Centre (HRC), Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 
University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut 
(UP) during 2007-08. The experiment was laid out 
in a factorial randomized block design with 9 
treatments and three replications Fully developed 
medium size corms were taken for planting purpose 
and treated with carbendazim @ 2.0 g per litre 
water and dried in shade. The treated corms were 
planted in well prepared field at the spacing i.e., 20 
x 10, 20 x 20 and 20 x 30 cm. The foliar application 
of salicylic acid was done according to doses i.e. 0, 
50 and 100 ppm uniformly at 40 and 60 days after 
planting during cropping period. A recommended 
dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash was 
applied in field. The half dose of nitrogen and full 
dose of phosphorus and potash were applied as 
basal dose at the time of final preparation of field 
before planting of corms. Whereas, remaining half 
dose of nitrogen was applied at the time of first 
flower spike emergence. During the 
experimentations, data were recorded in terms of 
growth and flowering parameters by using standard 
methods. Statistical analyses were carried out as 
suggested by Gomez and Gomez (2). 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Data presented in Table 1 showed that the 
different levels of spacing and salicylic acid 
application significantly affected the growth 
parameters during the course of investigation. 



Received: 17.6.2012 



Acceptance : 29.6.2012 



Response of different spacing and salicylic acid levels on growth and flowering of gladiolus 



271 



Maximum plant height (105.32 cm) was observed 
with 20 x 20 cm spacing whereas minimum plant 
height was recorded under the closer spacing i.e. 20 
x 10 cm over the wider spacing i.e. 20 x 30 cm. 
Similar results were also recorded in respect of 
plant height. The maximum plant height 
(105.32cm) was noticed with a optimum spacing 20 
x 20 cm and minimum (103.59 cm) under closer 
spacing i.e. 20 x 10 cm as compared to other wider 
spacing 20 x 30 cm. The number of leaves, length 
of leaf and width of leaf were also significantly 
affected by using various levels of spacing. The 
maximum of leaves per plant (12.63), length of leaf 
(67.28 cm) and width of leaf (3.01 cm) were 
recorded with optimum level of spacing i.e. 20 x 20 
cm while minimum number of leaves (9.56), length 
of leaf (64.44 cm) and width of leaf (3.01 cm) were 
recorded under the closer spacing i.e. 20 x 10 cm 
after the second wider spacing 20 x 30 cm. It is 
might be due to the space providing between the 
plants. The optimum plant spacing is provide the 
optimal amount of nutrients, space, sun light etc. 
regarding the number of sprouts and plant height. 
Similarly maximum number of leaves per plant, 
length of leaf and width of leaf are due to the effect 
of sufficient space and maximum exposure to sun 
light which enhance the photosynthesis. These 
findings are closely related with the findings of 
(Sujatha and Singh, 3). 

Similarly, the various doses of salicylic acid in 
the form of foliar application exhibited the 
significant effect on different growth parameters as 
compared to control and other treatments during the 
experimentation. The maximum plant height 
(104.83 cm) was recorded with an application of 50 
ppm salicylic acid and minimum plant height 
(99.45 cm) was obtained under the control 
treatment after the higher level of salicylic acid i.e., 
100 ppm. The other parameters like number of 
leaves per plant, leaves per plant, leaf length and 
width were also significantly increased upto zero to 
100 ppm salicylic acid. The maximum number of 
leaves per plant (11.83), length of leaf (68.64 cm) 
and width of leaf (3.03 cm) were observed with 
higher level of salicylic acid (100 ppm), while 



minimum number of leaves (8.73), length of leaf 
(64.86 cm) and width of leaf (2.74 cm) were 
recorded in control treatment. The salicylic acid is 
gave the favourable effect on growth parameters, 
because it is a growth promoting chemical. It 
accelerates the cell divisions in the apical portion of 
the sprouts in gladiolus. The above findings are in 
close confirmity with the findings of Sakhabut- 
dinova et al. (4). 

The data pertaining to flowering parameters 
(Table 2) revealed that the various levels of spacing 
and salicylic acid significantly affected the 
flowering of gladiolus over the control. The 
minimum days taken in terms of visibility of spike 
and days to opening 1 st floret i.e. 93.24 and 105.17 
days were recorded under the wider spacing 20 x 30 
cm, whereas maximum visibility days of first spike 
(104.04) and days to opening 1 st floret (115.97 
days) were taken with spacing i.e. 20 x 10 cm 
followed by optimum spacing 20 x 20 cm with 
values i.e. 97.88 and 110.64 days in terms of 
visibility of first spike and days to opening of 1 st 
florets. Similar results were also obtained with 
different doses of salicylic acid. In this regard, the 
minimum visibility of 1 st spike (90.77 days) and 
days to opening l sl floret (102.27 days) were 
noticed under the higher dose of salicylic acid i.e., 
100 ppm. However, the maximum days taken to 
visibility of first spike and days to opening of 1 st 
floret (108.09 and 119.38 days, respectively) were 
noticed in control. 

In context of spike length, the maximum 
length of spike (96.53 cm) was observed with wider 
spacing 20 x 30 cm, whereas minimum length of 
spike was noted under closer spacing i.e. 20 x 10 
cm followed by optimum spacing 20 x 20 cm. The 
salicylic acid concentration were also significantly 
affected the spike length upto 50 ppm salicylic acid 
then it was noted as detrimental factor. The 
maximum length of spike (101.54 cm) was 
recorded under 50 ppm salicylic acid whereas, 
minimum (86.14 cm) was obtained under control 
followed by higher concentration of salicylic acid. 
The another flowering character like rachis length 



272 



Ram et al. 



Table 1 : Effect of spacing and salicylic acid on vegetative growth characters of gladiolus. 



Treatments 


Plant height (cm) 


No. of leaves / 
plant 


Leaf length (cm) 


Leaf width (cm) 


Spacing 


S, (20 x 10 cm) 


101.62 


9.56 


64.44 


2.78 


S 2 (20 x 20 cm) 


105.32 


10.64 


66.91 


2.90 


S 3 (20 x 30 cm) 


103.59 


12.63 


67.28 


3.01 


Salicylic acid 


Ho (0 ppm) 


99.45 


8.73 


64.86 


2.74 


Hi (50 ppm) 


104.83 


9.06 


65.03 


2.93 


H 2 (100 ppm) 


101.24 


11.83 


68.64 


3.03 


CD. (P = 0.05) 


1.81 


0.30 


1.11 


0.05 



Table 2 : Effect of spacing and salicylic acid on flowering characters of gladiolus. 



Treatments 


Visibility of 

first spike 

(days) 


Days to 

opening of 

1st floret 


Spike 
length (cm) 


Rachis 
length (cm) 


Floral 

diameter 

(cm) 


No. of 

florets / 

spike 


Spacing 


Si (20 x 10 cm) 


104.04 


115.97 


90.61 


95.07 


10.68 


11.08 


S 2 (20 x 20 cm) 


97.88 


110.64 


94.37 


67.95 


10.70 


12.86 


S 3 (20 x 30 cm) 


93.24 


105.17 


96.53 


66.45 


40.90 


14.45 
















Salicylic acid 


Ho (0 ppm) 


108.09 


119.38 


86.14 


64.75 


10.80 


11.95 


Hi (50 ppm) 


96.51 


108.13 


101.54 


69.70 


11.00 


12.97 


H 2 (100 ppm) 


90.77 


102.27 


93.83 


59.70 


11.10 


14.97 


CD. (P = 0.05) 


2.16 


1.75 


2.11 


0.70 


NS 


1.33 



were also noted in favourable trend. The longest 
rachis length (95.07 cm) was recorded with closer 
spacing 20 x 10 cm and minimum (66.45 cm) was 
reported under 20 x 30 cm spacing followed by 20 x 
20 cm. The rachis length significantly affected by 
salicylic doses also with increasing level upto zero 
to 50 ppm then it was declined with higher 
concentration i.e., 100 ppm salicylic acid. The 
maximum (69.70 cm) rachis length was recorded 
with a dose of 50 ppm salicylic acid, while 
minimum (59.70 cm) rachis length was observed 
with 100 ppm salicylic acid followed by control 
(64.75 cm). 

The floral diameter was affected significantly 
with all the levels of spacing and salicylic acid. The 
various spacing and salicylic acid concentrations 



were significantly affected the number of florets per 
spike with increasing levels of both the treatments 
over control. The maximum number of florets 
(14.45) were found under wider spacing 20 x 30 cm 
whereas, minimum number of florets (11.08) were 
recorded under the closer spacing followed by 20 x 
20 cm spacing. Similar results were also reported 
with various concentration of salicylic acid. The 
maximum number of florets per spike (14.97) were 
observed with 1 00 ppm salicylic acid and minimum 
number of florets (11.95) were under control 
followed by 50 ppm salicylic acid. The positive 
response of wider spacing provide sufficient space 
between the plants resulting plants absorbed 
optimum amount of nutrients with sufficient light, 
which ultimately favours photosynthesis and 
translocation of assimilates into the storage organs. 



Response of different spacing and salicylic acid levels on growth and flowering of gladiolus 



273 



These changes in plant system are also responsible 
for improving flowering parameters i.e., visibility, 
days to open 1 st floret, spike length, rachis length, 
floral diameter and number of florets. These 
findings are in close conformity with the earlier 
findings reported by Khurana and Cleland (5). 

REFERENCES 

1. Bijimol, G. and Singh A.K., (2001). Effect of 
spacing and nittogen on gladiolus under 
Nagaland condition. J. Orna. Hort., 4 (1) : 
36-39. 

2. Gomez, A and Gomez, A.A. (1996). Statistical 
Procedure for Agricultural Research. John 
Willey and Sons Inc, New York. 



Sujatha, K. and Singh, K.P. (1991). Effect of 
different planting densities on growth, 
flowering and corn production in gladiolus. 
Indian J. Hort., 48 (3) : 273-276. 
Sakhabnt Dinova, A.R.; Fatkhat Kinova, D.R.; 
Bezrukova, M.V. and Shakiroga, EM. (2003). 
Salicylic acid prevents and damaging action of 
stress factors on wheat plants Bulg. J. Plant 
Physio, period ISSU 314-319. 
Khurana, J.P. and Cleland C.E (1962). Role of 
salicylic acid and bezoic acid in flowering of a 
photoperiod insensitive strain, Lemna 
paucicostala LP 61. Plant Physio., 100 
T541-1546. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 274-277 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




ECONOMICS OF PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF OKRA IN 
DISTRICT BIJNOR (U.P.) 

O.P. Maurya and S.L. Pal' 

Department of Agricultural Economics, R.S.M.(P.G) College, Dhampur (Bijnor) 
'Department of Horticulture 



ABSTRACT: Bhindi (Okra) is an important vegetable crop of district Bijnor. It provides a net 
income of Rs. 7794.78 with a gross output value of Rs. 21000.00 with a total input of Rs. 
13205.22. The cost : benefit ratio was calculated at 1:1.59. In the marketing of Bhindi(okra) the 
producer's share in the price paid by the consumer was very low being only 56.41 per cent due to 
inefficient marketing. A sound production and marketing system of vegetables in general and 
that of Bhindi (okra) in particular are needed. 



Keywords : Okra, production, marketing, economics, 

Vegetable growing has assumed increased 
interest by the farmers during the last few decades 
with the commercialization of agriculture. Bhindi is 
cultivated throughout India for its immature fruits 
which are generally cooked as vegetable. Bhindi 
soups and stews are also popular dishes. When ripe, 
the black or brown white eyed seeds are sometimes 
roasted and used as substitute for coffee. The crop 
is used for the extraction of the fiber. The fruits also 
have some medicinal value. 

Now a days, India is one of the main vegetable 
growing countries of the world. Bhindi crop is 
grown all over India. Among the most important 
states only four U.P., Maharashtra, M.P. and Tamil 
Nadu account three fourth of total area (Schweers 
and Sims, 3). 

An attempt was made here to collect primary 
data and analyze it to find out certain special 
features which would reveal a broad picture of 
production and marketing of Bhindi in Bijnor 
district of U.P. with the special objectives viz. To 
study the economics of production of Bhindi, 
economics of the existing arrangement for 
marketing, and to examine the problems of 
production and marketing of Bhindi and put forth 
suggestion to overcome them 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The present study was confined to Kotwali 
block of Bijnor district. The data were collected 



Received: 12.6.2012 



Revised: 27.6.2012 



cost : benefit ratio. 

from 5 villages of the Kotwali block by contacting 
50 Bhindi growers who were randomly selected for 
the purpose. The block was selected most suited for 
Bhindi cultivation. The data were collected by 
survey method through personal interview with the 
respondents during 2009-10. The data on marketing 
were collected from the Bijnor vegetable Mandi 
which is a secondary market and regulated one. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

For the sake of convenience, the present study 
has been divided into three parts : 1 . Economics of 
production of Bhindi, 2. Marketing of Bhindi,and 3. 
Problems and Suggestions. 

l.Economics of Production of Bhindi: 

The farmers of the Kotwali block of district 
Bijnor generally grow Pusa Makhamali and Pusa 
Sawani varieties of Bhindi which are high yielding 
varieties. The Bhindi growers in the study area 
generally apply, 3-4 ploughings, 1 to 2 weedings 
and 2-3 irrigations for its production. They 
generally use 300 to 400 quintals of F.Y.M along 
with chemical fertilizers in the form of N.P.K. 

Cost and Returns : The cost structure in 
production of Bhindi included the cost on 
production inputs like seed, irrigation, plant 
protection, manures and fertilizers, human labour 
and tractor power, rental value of land at the 
prevailing market rate and overhead costs, 
comprising of interest on working and fixed capital, 
repairs and depreciation etc. The average cost on 



Economics of production and marketing of okra in district Bijnor (U.P.) 



275 



inputs and returns on the cultivation of Bhindi per 
hectare on the sample holdings have been workout 
(Table 1). 

Table 1 reveals that the cost of production per 
hectare of Bhindi (cost of cultivation and marketing 
charges per hectare) came to Rs. 16040.22. The 
cost of production per quintal was worked out to 
Rs. 229.15. As regards returns, Bhindi yielded a net 
return of Rs. 4959.78, with a total value of output of 
Rs. 21000.00. The average yield came to 70.00 
quintals per hectare. As regards expenditure on 
different items, human labour accounted for the 
highest percentage expenditure being 19.81 to the 
total cost followed by cost on manures and 
fertilizers (19.07%), marketing cost (17.70%), seed 
(14.40%), tractor power (7.20%), irrigation (3.41) 
and plant protection (3.41%). 

(2) Marketing of Bhindi : 

Method of Sale : Marketing of Bhindi plays a 
very vital role in the production process of this 
crop. In Kotwali market both wholesale and retail 
sale are followed. Wholesalers and retailers, in fact, 
purchase the Bhindi from producers and sale it to 
retailers or consumers. Bhindi is offered for sale in 
the market directly by producers themselves also. 

Market Charge : The marketing charges paid 
by the producers per quintal of Bhindi in Bijnor 
vegetable mandi has been shows in Table 2. 

Table 2 shows that the marketing cost per 
quintal of Bhindi in Bijnor vegetable mandi, which 
is under regulation, came to Rs. 40.50 per quintal. 
As regard marketing charges of different items, 
commission accounted for the highest percentage 
expenditure being 37.04 to the total marketing 
charges followed by packing charges 20.99%, 
transportation 23.46%, mandi charge and other 
12.34% and loading and unloading charges 6.17%. 

During the course of investigation, it was 
observed that the prices were the highest in the 
month of October to January and the lowest from 
March to September. The position of prices become 
worst during the period when the trucks are not free 



available. The findings of present study are in line 
of Maurya et al. (1). 

Producer's Share in Consumer's Price : It 

would be interesting to know the difference 
between price received by the producer and price 
paid by the ultimate consumer and its spread over in 
the marketing of Bhindi in Bijnor. Several factors 
are governing the fraction or percentage of price 
obtained by the producer. Thus, whole spectrum of 
such factors are rural roads, market distance from 
production centres, marketing news, economic 
condition of farmers and marketing facilities etc. 
The producer's share in consumer's price in Bijnor 
vegetable Mandi for the year 2009-10 has been 
worked out in Table 3. 

Table 3 reveals that the producer's share in 
consumer's price in Bijnor vegetable Mandi came 
to 56.41%. This low level of producer's share in 
consumer's price may be attributed towards 
inefficient markeing. The marketing costs and 
margins accounted for 43.59%. The marketing cost 
born by the producer came to 8.80% and those of 
wholesaler and retailers 16.54%. The middle men's 
margin came to 18.25% of the price paid by the 
consumers. The per quintal expenditure borne by 
the producers of the wholesaler and the retailer 
come to Rs. 40.50, Rs. 42.50 and Rs. 33.50, 
respectively. The middlemen's share came to Rs. 
84.00 per quintal. 

(3) Problems and Suggestions : The main 
problems related to Bhindi production, 
transportation, marketing etc. and suggestions 
(Loranz and Maynard, 2) thereof are summarised in 
the following lines. By and large, the problems of 
Bhindi centre round the fact that the margin of 
profit in this commodity has been decreasing and to 
not in consistent with the quantum of investment. 

(i) Supply of inputs and quality seed : There 
are only two improved varieties of Bhindi i.e. Pusa 
Makhamali and Pusa Sawani which are grown in 
the study area. It is suggested that new improved, 
hybrid, high yielding varieties of Bhindi and the 
supply of other farm inputs at reasonable price and 



276 



Maury a and Pal 



Table 1 : 


The average cost and returns on Bhindi crop (year 2009-10). 




S. No. 


Particulars 


Value in Rs/ ha 


Percentage 


1 


Human labour 


3176.59 


19.81 


2 


Traction power 


1155.00 


7.20 


3 


Seed 


2309.99 


14.40 


4 


Manures and fertilizers 


3063.14 


19.07 


5. 


Irrigation 


498.81 


3.11 


6 


Plant protection 


498.81 


3.11 


7 


Rental value of land 


1500.00 


9.35 


8 


Overhead charges 


1002.10 


6.25 


9 


Total cost of cultivation 


13205.22 




10 


Average yield in quintal 


70.00 




11 


Average marketing rate per quintal 


300.00 




12 


Total value of produce 


21000.00 




13 


Net profit 


7794.78 




14 


Cost benefit ratio 


1:1.59 




15 


Cost of production/qtl. of Bhindi 


108.65 




16 


Marketing cost per quintal 


40.50 




17 


Total marketing cost of the product of one quintal 


2835.00 




18 


Cost of production/q of Bhindi including marketing charges 


229.15 




19 


Total input cost/ha including market charges 


16040.22 




20 


Net return per hectare 


4959.78 





Table 2 : Marketing charges per quintal of Bhindi paid by producer during 2009-10. 



S. No. 


Particulars 


Marketing 

charges per 

quintal in Rs. 


Percentage 


1 


Packing charges 


8.50 


20.99 


2 


Transportation 


9.50 


23.46 


3 


Commission 


15.00 


37.04 


4 


Loading and unloading 


2.50 


6.17 


5 


Mandi charges & others 


5.00 


12.34 




Total 


40.50 


100.00 



Table 3 : Producer's share in consumer's price (2009-10). 



S. No. 


Particulars 


Amount in Rs. 
per quintal 


Percentage of 
consumer's price 


A 1. 


Charges paid by producer 


40.50 


8.80 


2. 


Sale price of producer 


300.00 




3. 


Net amount received by producer 


259.50 




B 1. 


Charges paid by wholesaler 


42.50 


9.24 


2. 


Sale price of wholesaler 


380.50 




3. 


Wholesaler's margin 


37.50 


8.15 


C 1. 


Charges paid by retailer 


33.50 


7.30 


2. 


Sale price of retailer 


460.00 




3. 


Retailer margin 


46.50 


10.10 


D. 


Producers share in consumer's price 


259.50 


56.41 



Economics of production and marketing of okra in district Bijnor (U.P.) 



Ill 



at proper time will help in increasing the 
productivity of the produce to a large extent. 

(ii) Development of varieties : The 

development of varieties with better culinary 
quality and superior nutritive value, exploring 
possibilities of increasing processing and industrial 
use of bhindi is needed, improving the existing 
techniques for producing disease free seed, pollen 
storage pollination, flower production and fruiting 
studies aimed at helping in breeding programme. 

(iii) Diseases, insects and pests : Bhindi is 
attracted by a number of diseases caused by fungi 
and viruses. The fungus can live in the soil for 
several years; so the control measures consist on 
soil treatment or use of fungus resistant varieties, 
spraying with some copper fungicides also can 
prevent the spread of the disease. 

The most important virus diseases is yellow 
vein mosiac. It is a vein clearing virus disease. 
There is no resistant commercial variety. Pusa 
Sawani is a variety tolerant to the disease. The 
disease infestation is greater in the rainy season 
than in summer. 

There are a number of insects, which attack 
bhindi but only jassids are often serious, the other 
insects are shoot and fruit borer and cotton 
bollworms. The control measures for Jassids are 
timely spraying with a 0.02% Endrine or 0.04% 
monocrotophas. The treatment should not be given, 
when the crop is ready for harvest. 

(iv) Low producer's share in consumer's 
price: The producer's share in consumer's price 
was very low in the study area and requires 
immediate remedial measures. The efficient 
transport and credit facilities may go a long way in 
raising the producer's share in consumer's price on 
one hand and reducing the marketing cost of the 
other. 

(v) Distress sale of Bhindi : Immediate 
remedial measures are need to save the bhindi 



growers from distress sale. Efficient transport and 
other facilities on one hand and increased export on 
the other hand would go a long way in solving this 
problem. 

(vi) High transport cost : The transport cost 
forms a major part of the marketing cost to the 
producer as well as the traders. Steps may be taken 
at the government level to regularize the transport 
charges. For this purpose monopoly of the transport 
agencies will have to be broken and control rate be 
in forced. 

(vii) Low price : It has been observed that 
during the year there has been a very wide 
fluctuation in the prices. No doubt, price 
fluctuation of bhindi is one of the various problems 
of marketing. 

(viii) Large surpluses : In order to increase 
the profitability of the crop, it is suggested that the 
supply at a reasonable rate must be increased. For 
this purpose, news outside the country should be 
explored on priority basis. Export promotion 
council should take up the issue of supply of bhindi 
more seriously. 

A multi-directional integrated approach to 
take up problem solving and purpose oriented 
research, which may enable growers to play a vital 
role in the agricultural economy of the state. 

REFERENCES 

1. Maurya, O.P., Singh, G.N. and Kushwaha, 
R.K.S.(1995). Economics of production and 
marketing of Bhindi in District Varanasi (U.P.). 
Farm Set. J. 10 : 65-70. 

2. Loranz, O.A. and D.M. Maynard (1988). 
Knott s Handbook for Vegetable Growers, New 
York, NY, Wiley. 

3. Schweers, V.H. and Sims, W.L.(1976). Okra 
Production. Leaflet, 2679, 5pp. UC DAMR, 
Oakland, CA. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 278-280 (2012) 



Research Note 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




IDENTIFICATION OF FABA BEAN (Vicia faba L.) LINES SUITABLE FOR 
RAINFED AND IRRIGATED SITUATION 

A.K. Singh, B.P. Bhatt, Santosh Kumar and P.K. Sundram 

ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region Patna 800 014 

Keywords : Faba bean, germplasm, selection technique, line. 



Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the oldest 
crops grown by man and is used as a source of 
protein in human diet, as fodder and forage crop for 
animals, and for available nitrogen in the biosphere. 
It is popularly called as "Bakla" in Hindi heartland. 
They were introduced to India by Arab traders. The 
name is derived from Arabic name "Baquila". In 
spite of its potential, the total area of faba bean 
cultivation has steadily decreased in many 
countries over the last century (Mihailovic et al, 3 
and Singh and Bhatt, 4). To make faba bean into a 
perfect candidate for a sustainable agriculture, the 
crop should be beneficial both to farmers/producers 
and to users (human and/or animal nutrition). This 
goal could be achieved through the development of 
genotypes resistant to diseases and abiotic 
constraints such as over-wintering ability, frost 
resistance and drought avoidance, and free of 
anti -nutritional factors (Cubero, 2, and Singh et al, 
5). There are two types of faba bean i.e. large 
seeded Vicia faba major, commonly known as 
broad bean, and the smaller Vicia faba minor, 
sometimes known as tick or horse bean(Alba and 
Scippa, 1). In fact, the two types are the same 
species and are only distinguished on the basis of 
seed size. Faba bean being such potential crop but it 
is very unfortunate to say but is reality in India this 
crop is by and large known as orphan and this crop 
is still treated as neglected crop, resulted in to 
limited systematic crop improvement work in past 
(Singh and Bhatt, 4). 

Only few serious attempts has been 
undertaken to breed out improved cultivar for this 
crop, hence only two varieties (Pusa Sumeet and 
Vikrant) are notified till date so far at national level 
Average potential productivity of both variety is 
1.5-3.5 t/ha. In India it is grown as intercrop under 
irrigated condition with potato, maize, wheat even 
sole cropping is also done, whereas under rainfed 
conditions it is grown as sole crop and also as 
mixed/intercropped with several crops including 
lentil, linseed, gram etc. (Singh et al, 5 and Singh 
et al, 6). 



Lack of suitable varietal technology is one of 
the major bottlenecks to adopt this crop. Farmers 
are bound to cultivate low yielding disease 
susceptible local landraces. The potentiality of faba 
bean is around 6.0-7.0 t /ha whereas in India its 
average productivity isl.5 t/ha and in Bihar it is 
further low to 1 .2 t/ha. Keeping in view the above 
facts one project was undertaken with an objective 
to evaluate faba bean germplasm for agro- 
morphological, physiological and quality traits and 
development of suitable faba bean varietal 
technology. Under project B7-1 evaluation of 
germplasm of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). 68 
accessions of faba bean were collected during 
2005-06 and being evaluating since 2006-07, all 
together leading to sustainable improvement of 
land and water productivity. To take lead in world 
trade we have to come with suitable package and 
practices of faba bean to improve our production 
and productivity. With Immediate objectives viz., 
to evaluate the promising germplasm under 
multi-location trials, to evaluate the performance of 
promising germplasm under different environment 
and to recommend promising lines as variety for 
different situation. Varietal technology is the tool to 
provide potential to act upon other technology to 
improve the production and productivity through 
efficient agronomic management practices. 
Keeping in view the above stated fact the 
multi-location trial was proposed to evaluate the 
developed and screen promising lines for its 
suitability to the particular environment. The 
important characteristic features of the developed 
lines are as under 

Descriptions of developed line 2011215: 

This line was developed by adopting selection 
method due to its added advantage of adaptability 
of screened and developed variety. Single plant 
selection method was adopted for further screening 
and fixing of desired trait. Selection was made from 
the germplasm collected from Bihar (Singh and 
Bhatt, 4). The plant height of this line is 70 - 90 cm 
depending upon soil type, agro-climatic condition 



Received: 17.6.2012 



Acceptance : 27.6.2012 



Identification of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) lines suitable for rainfed and irrigated situation 



279 




Fig. 1 : Plant type and seed character of 2011215. 

and crop management practices adopted. It is semi 
spreading types (Fig.l) and matures in 110-115 
days. This variety was developed for irrigated and 
rainfed both conditions. The yield potential of this 
line under irrigated (5.2 t/ha) and rainfed (4.0 t/ha). 
The major characteristic feature of this line is given 
in Table 1. Performance of this line (2011215) was 
evaluated under multilocation trial (Table 2). Seed 
yield was recorded 5.38 t/ha under irrigated and 
3.94 t/ha in rainfed situation and better than both 
the national check i.e. Pusa Sumeet (2.68 t/ha.) and 
Vikrant (2.37 t/ha). 

Descriptions of developed line 2011410: 

Selection method was also applied to develop 
this line, obviously due to its added advantage of 
adaptability of screened and developed variety 
under particular agro-climatic conditions. Further 
screening and fixing of desired trait was done 
through single plant selection method. Selection 
was made from the germplasm collected from Bihar 
(Singh and Bhatt, 4). Depending upon agro- 
climatic condition, soil type and agronomic 
management practices plant height of this line 
ranged between 77-105 cm. Stature of plant is 
bushy types (Fig. 2). Crop matures in 120-125days. 
This line was developed exclusively for irrigated 




Plant type and seed character of 2011410. 



conditions. It performs excellent under assured 
water supplied condition. The yield potential of this 
line under irrigated is 5.5 to 6.0t/ha. The major 
characteristic feature of this line is given in Table 1 . 
Performance of this line (2011410) was evaluated 
under multilocation trial (Table 2). Seed yield was 
recorded 5.05 t/ha under irrigated environment and 
better than both the national check i.e. Pusa Sumeet 
(2.68 t/ha.) and Vikrant (2.37 t/ha). 

Good agronomic practices (GAP) for achieving 
potential production of developed lines 

Square planting (keeping 30 cm apart) is 
advocated for both lines for better utilization of all 
the resources. Furrow irrigation and raised bed 
planting (FIRB) is the best management practice to 
optimize resources utilization. Both the developed 
lines are very much responsive to added nutrients. 
To produce faba bean seed @ 5.0 t/h, under sandy 
loam to clay loam soil condition with normal pH 
and medium soil fertility status, on an average, it 
requires N: P: K: S: Zn @ 25:60:40:30:5 kg/ha. It is 
essential to apply all nutrients as basal application, 
however for better yield and quality, top dressing of 
urea at pre-flowering stage after light irrigation 
may be done. Further foliar application of Zn @ 0.5 
per cent and boron 50 ppm will make sure the 
increased productivity (Singh et al, 7). 



280 



Singh et al. 



Table 


1: 


Important 


characteristic of 


developed 


varieties (accessions). 








SI. 


No 




Traits 




Descriptions of 


developed 


varieties 


(Accessions) 




2011215 






2011410 



Plant height 

Days to maturity 

Yield potential (t/h) 

HI 

1000 grain wt. (g) 

Leaf area Index (90DAS) 

Plant type 

1 st podding height 

Recommended for 



70-90 cm 

110-115 

4.0 to 5.2 

0.61 

235.6 

2.03 

Semi spreading 

5 cm 

Irrigated as well as 



77-105 cm 

120-125 

5.5 to 6.0 

0.63 

228.9 

2.14 

Bushy 

7.5 cm 

Irrigated condition 



rainfed condition 




Table 2: Multi location evaluation of developed lines of faba bean. 


Location of Performance of faba bean (Seed yield t/ha) 


Evaluation Developed lines 


Check variety 


2011215 2011215 2011410 
(Irrigated) (Rainfed) (Irrigated) 


Pusa Sumeet Vikrant 
(Irrigated) (Irrigated) 



ICAR, Patna 


5.53 


3.16 


5.38 


2.91 


2.36 


ICAR, Ranchi 


4.76 


2.43 


3.1.8 


2.26 


2.19 


IARI, Pusa 


6.13 


2.29 


5.88 


2.86 


2.51 


WALMI, Patna 


6.03 


4.53 


5.18 


28.1 


2.74 


CPRS, Patna 


5.23 


2.43 


4.58 


2.91 


2.57 


KVK Auraiya 


5.39 


3.34 


4.23 


2.96 


2.28 


KVK, Sitamarhi 


4.84 


2.69 


3.82 


2.52 


1.96 


KVK, Buxar 


5.11 


2.67 


3.89 


2.17 


2.34 


Average 


5.38 


3.94 


5.05 


2.68 


2.37 



Rainfed: Irrigation was supplemented at pre flowering stage. 

Irrigated: Irrigation (2-4 nos.) has been provided need based i. e. (Watering at pre flowering and post podding was must). 



Summary : 

Single plant selection (SPS) is the one of the 
best way to identify and purify the desirable traits. 
Both lines were screened and purified adopting the 
same technique. 2011215 is identified for rainfed 
and irrigated environment whereas 2011410 is best 
suited for irrigated condition. Both the lines were 
found suitable for Eastern States, viz. Eastern U.P., 
Bihar and Jharkhand. 

REFERENCES 

1. Alba, P. Uggenti and G. Scippa.(1999). 
Geographical patterns of variation in Bari faba 
bean germplasm collection. Genet. Resour. and 
Crop Evol., 46:183-192. 

2. Cubero, J. I. (1974). On the evolution of Vicia 
faba. Theor. and Appl. Genet., 45: 47-51. 

3. Mihailovic, V., Miki, A., Cupina B. and Eric P. 
(2005). Field pea and vetches in Serbia and 
Montenegro. Grain Legumes, AA: 25-26. 

4. Singh, A. K. and Bhatt, B. P. (Eds.). (2012). 
Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.): A potential 



leguminous crop of India. ICAR, RCER 
Patna.517 + XI P. 

Singh, A. K., Chandra, N, Bharati, R .C. and 
Dimree, S. K. (2010). Effect of seed size and 
seeding depth of bean (Vicia faba L.) 
productivity. Env. &Ecol, 28 (3A): 1722- 1527. 

Singh, A. K., Dimree, S. K., Khan, M. A. and 
Upadhyay, A. (2009a). Agronomic evaluation 
of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) performance under 
impending climate change situation. National 
Symposium on Recent Global Developments in 
the Management of Plant Genetic Resources, 
17-18 December 2009. Souvenir and Abstracts. 
Indian Society of Plant Genetic Resources, New 
Delhi, pp 185. 

Singh, A. K., Khan, M. A. and Janardan Jee. 
(2009b). Agronomic manipulation for 
optimizing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) 
productivity. First Indian Scientist and Farmers 
Congress on Technological innovation for 
enhancing agriculture production 3-4 October, 
2009, CCS University, Meerut (UP), pp. 
171-179. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 281-283 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




Research Note : 

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC AND BORON ON YIELD 
AND FRUIT QUALITY OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L.) 

Nitin Trivedi, Devi Singh, Vijay Bahadur, V. M. Prasad and J. P. Collis 

Department of Horticulture 

Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad- 211 007 



Keywords : Guava, zinc, boron, foliar application, 

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is one of the most 
important subtropical fruit crop. It is also called 
"The apple of tropics". It belongs to the natural 
order Myrtal and the botanical family Myrtaceae. 
Guava is a rich source of ascorbic acid and pectin, 
which ranges from 75 to 260 mg/100 g and pectin 
ranges between 0.5% to 1.8%, respectively. 
(Adsule and Kadam, 1). Besides, it is fair source of 
Vitamin A and contains appreciable quantities of 
thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Guava fruit is also 
utilized to make products like Jelly, Jam, Cheese, 
Ice-cream and Toffee. Two types of wines-guava 
juice wine and guava pulp wine are also prepared 
from guava fruit. 

Zinc is the important constituent of several 
enzymes which regulate various metabolic reaction 
in the plant, associated water uptake to water 
relation in the plant. The deficiency symptoms 
appear in younger leaves starting with interveinal 
chlorosis leading to a reduction in shoot growth and 
the shorting of internodes. Zinc is essential for 
auxin and protein synthesis, seed production and 
proper maturity. It also increases the fruit size as 
well as yield. Boron is a constituent of cell 
membrane and essential for cell division. Acts as a 
regulator of potassium/calcium ratio in the plant, 
helps in nitrogen absorption and translocation of 
sugar in plant. Boron increases nitrogen availability 
to the plant. 

It is therefore, essential to evaluate the effect 
of zinc and boron and their combination on yield 
and fruit quality for their commercial application. 

The investigation was conducted during 
2011-2012 at the experimental orchard of 



fruit quality. 

Department of Horticulture, Allahabad School of 
Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of 
Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad 
(U.P.). The soil of experimental orchard was sandy 
loam and site comes under sub-tropical zone. 
Average rainfall is above 900 mm. Nine treatments 
viz., T - Control (tap water), Ti - 0.5 per cent 
Boric Acid, T 2 - 0.6 per cent Boric Acid, T 3 - 0.5 
per cent Zinc Sulphate, T 4 - 0.5 per cent Zinc 
Sulphate + 0.5 per cent Boric Acid, T 5 - 0.5 per cent 
Zinc Sulphate + 0.6 per cent Boric Acid, T 6 - 0.6 
per cent Zinc Sulphate, T 7 - 0.6 per cent Zinc 
Sulphate + 0.5 per cent Boric Acid and T 8 - 0.6 per 
cent Zinc Sulphate + 0.6 per cent Boric Acid were 
applied on 15 th July and 10 th September, 2011. 

The experiment was laid out in 3x3 Factorial 
in Randomized Block Design with three 
replications. Observations were recorded on yield 
and physico-chemical characters. 

Fruit weight was significantly increased by the 
application of different treatments of 
micronutrients (Table 1). Maximum fruit weight 
(162.01 g) was observed with 0.6% zinc sulphate + 
0.5% boric acid followed by T 8 (0.6% zinc sulphate 
+ 0.6% boric acid) with 154.11g. Minimum fruit 
weight (85.55 g) was found in control. The higher 
fruit weight due to combined application of zinc 
and boron may be attributed to their stimulatory 
effect on plant metabolism. These results are in 
conformity with the results reported by El-Sherif et. 
al. (3), Das et al. (2), Singh et al. (7) and Rawat et 
al. (6). 

The highest polar diameter (7.91 cm) was 
found in T 7 (0.6% zinc sulphate + 0.5% boric acid) 
and followed by T 8 with 7.14 cm. The minimum 



Received: 27.4.2012 



Accepted: 17.5.2012 



282 



Trivedi et al. 



diameter (5.15 cm) was recorded in control. The 
radial diameter was significantly increased by the 
application of different treatments of zinc and 
boron. Maximum radial diameter (7.52 cm) was 
observed with T 7 followed by T 8 with 6.78 cm. The 
minimum diameter (4.62 cm) was found in control. 
The higher radial diameter of fruit due to combined 
application of zinc and boron may be attributed to 
their stimulatory effect of plant metabolism. (Das 
et al, 2; Singh et al., 7 and Rawat et al., 6). 

The treatment T 7 (0.6% zinc sulphate + 0.5% 
boric acid) have maximum yield (46.41 kg/plant) 
and followed by 0.6% zinc sulphate + 0.6% boric 
acid with 43.42 kg/plant and T 5 with 42.39 
kg/plant, respectively. The minimum yield (23.71 
kg/plant) was found in control. These results are 
more or less in conformity with the findings 
reported by Kundu and Mitra (5), El-Sherif et al. 
(3), Singh et al. (7) and Rawat et al. (6). 

The maximum specific gravity (1.024 g/cc) 
was found in 0.6% zinc sulphate + 0.5% boric acid 
followed by T 8 with 1.012 g/cc. The minimum 
specific gravity (0.892 g/cc) was found in control. 

Total soluble solids (TSS) was found 
maximum (15.40%) in T 7 followed by T 8 (0.6% 
zinc sulphate + 0.6% boric acid) with 13.61%. The 
minimum TSS (9.62%) was found in T . The higher 
total soluble solids might be due to the efficient 
translocation of photosynthates to the fruit by 
regulation of boron. The results are similar to the 
findings of Rawat et al. (6). 

The treatment T 7 and T 8 have highest acidity 
(0.550%) followed by T 5 (0.5% zinc sulphate + 
0.6% boric acid) with 0.546%. The control had 
minimum acidity (0.378%). Acidity percentage of 
guava fruit might have been augmented due to 
higher synthesis of nucleic acids, on account of 
maximum availability of plant metabolism. 
El-Sherif et al. (3) have also reported similar 
results. 

The maximum ascorbic acid was recorded in 
T 7 with 221.51 mg/100 g fruit pulp followed by T 8 
with 205.68 mg/100 g fruit pulp and T 5 (0.5% zinc 



sulphate + 0.6% boric acid) with 187.78 mg/100 g 
fruit pulp, respectively. The minimum ascorbic acid 
(123.01 mg/100 g fruit pulp) was in control. 
Augmentation of ascorbic acid percentage of guava 
fruit might have been due to higher synthesis of 
nucleic acid, on account of maximum availability 
of plant metabolism. El-Sherif et al. (3), Jaiprakash 
et al. (4) and Singh et al. (9) have also reported 
similar results. 

The highest total sugar (8.66%) in T 7 (0.6% 
zinc sulphate + 0.5% boric acid) was followed by 
T 8 (0.6% zinc sulphate + 0.6% boric acid) with 
8.29%. The minimum sugar found (5.81%) in T . 
The treatment T 5 (0.5% zinc sulphate + 0.6% boric 
acid) have higher reducing sugar (5.02%) was 
followed by T 7 (0.6% zinc sulphate + 0.5% boric 
acid) with 4.90%. Minimum reducing sugar was 
found in control with 2.99%. The maximum 
non-reducing sugar (3.76%) was found in T 7 was 
followed by T 8 with 3.47% and minimum 
non-reducing sugar (2.71%) was found in T 2 (0.0% 
zinc sulphate + 0.6% boric acid). The higher 
percentage of total sugar, reducing sugar and 
non-reducing sugar might be due to efficient 
translocation photosynthates to the fruits by 
regulation of boric acid. These results are in 
conformity with the findings of Singh and 
Brahmachari (8), Das et al. (2) and El-Sherif et al. 
(5). The highest sugar-acid ratio was found in T 7 
(0.6% zinc sulphate + 0.5% boric acid) with 15.76 
followed by T 4 (0.5% zinc sulphate + 0.5% boric 
acid) with 15.48. Minimum ratio was recorded in T 5 
(0.5% zinc sulphate + 0.6% boric acid) with 14.41 . 

CONCLUSION 

From the present investigation it may be 
concluded that the combined foliar application of 
zinc sulphate @ 0.6 per cent and boric acid @ 0.5 
per cent before fruit set and after fruit set resulted in 
higher yield (46.41 kg/tree), fruit weight (162.01 
g), radial diameter (7.52 cm), polar diameter (7.91 
cm), specific gravity (1.024 g/cc), TSS (15.40% ), 
acidity (0.550%), ascorbic acid (221.51 mg/100 g 
fruit pulp), total sugar (8.66%), non-reducing sugar 
(3.76%) and sugar-acid ratio (15.76). 



Effect of foliar application of zinc and boron on yield and fruit quality of guava 



283 



Table 1: Effect of foliar application of Zinc and Boron on different parameters of guava. 



Treat- 
ment 


Fruit 

weight 

(g) 


Polar 
dia- 
meter 
(cm) 


Radial 
dia- 
meter 
(cm) 


Yield 

(kg/ 

plant) 


Speci- 
fic 
gravity 
(g/cc) 


TSS 
(%) 


Acid- 
ity 
(%) 


Ascorbic 

acid (mg 

/100g 

pulp) 


Total 
sugar 

(%) 


Reduc- 
ing 
sugar 
(%) 


Non- 
reduc- 
ing 
sugar 
(%) 


Sugar- 
acid 
ratio 


To 


85.55 


5.15 


4.62 


23.71 


0.892 


9.62 


0.378 


123.01 


5.81 


2.99 


2.82 


15.38 


T, 


91.37 


5.31 


5.22 


27.23 


0.914 


10.58 


0.439 


134.55 


6.42 


3.53 


2.89 


14.62 


T 2 


92.40 


5.60 


5.42 


29.77 


0.928 


11.25 


0.452 


140.43 


6.81 


4.10 


2.71 


15.07 


T 3 


101.46 


5.98 


5.49 


35.49 


0.940 


11.53 


0.460 


163.59 


7.12 


4.25 


2.87 


15.46 


T 4 


115.55 


6.04 


5.51 


38.56 


0.965 


11.79 


0.476 


176.92 


7.37 


4.47 


2.90 


15.48 


T 5 


126.53 


6.87 


6.50 


42.39 


0.975 


12.79 


0.546 


187.78 


7.87 


5.02 


2.86 


14.41 


T, 


121.69 


6.24 


5.73 


40.48 


0.970 


12.11 


0.526 


184.42 


7.66 


4.79 


2.87 


14.55 


T 7 


162.01 


7.91 


7.52 


46.41 


1.024 


15.40 


0.550 


221.51 


8.66 


4.90 


3.76 


15.76 


T 8 


154.11 


7.14 


6.78 


43.42 


1.012 


13.61 


0.550 


205.68 


8.29 


4.82 


3.47 


15.07 


CD. 
(P=0.05) 


1.15 


0.05 


0.05 


1.77 


0.008 


0.26 


0.006 


1.92 


0.08 


0.07 


0.09 


0.26 



3. 



4. 



REFERENCES 

Adsule, R. N. and Kadam, S. S. (1995). 
Handbook of Fruit Science and Technology - 
Production, Composition, Storage and 
Processing (Eds. D.K. Salunkhe and S.S. 
Kadam), Marcel Dekker Inc., New York pp. 
419-433. 

Das, A., Majumdar, K. and Majumdar, B. C. 
(2000). Zinc sulphate induced higher sweetness 
of rainy season guava fruits. Indian Agric, 
44(3-4): 199-201. 

El-Sherif, A. A., Saeed, W.T. andNouman, V. F. 
(2000). Effect of foliar application of potassium 
and zinc on behaviour of Mantakhad 
El-kannater guava trees. Bulletin faculty Agri., 
Univ. Cario., 51 (1): 73-84. 
Jaiprakash, Singh, N. P. and Sankaran, M. 
(2006). Influnce of nitrogen, zinc and boron on 
leaf nutrient composition and yield of guava cv. 
L-49 {Psidium guajava L.). Environ. & Eco., 24 
(special 4): 1158-1160. 



Kundu, S. and Mitra, S.K. (1999). Response of 
guava to foliar sprays of copper, boron and zinc. 
Indian Agric. 43(l-2):49-54. 
Rawat, V., Tomar, Y. K. and Rawat, J. M. S. 
(2010). Influence of foliar application of 
micro-nutrients on the fruit quality of guava cv. 
Lucknow-49. J. Hill Agri., 1 (l):0976-7606. 
Singh, R, Chaturvedi, O. P. and Singh, R. 
(2004). Effect of pre-harvest spray of zinc, 
boron and calcium on the physico - chemical 
quality of guava fruits {Psidium guajava L.). 
International seminar on recent trend on Hi-tech 
Hort. and P.H.T. Kanpur, Feb 4-6, 2004, 204. 
Singh, U. P. and Brahmachari, V. S. (1999). 
Effect of potassium, zinc, boron and 
molybdenum on the physico-chemical composi- 
tion of guava {Psidium guajava L.) cv. 
Allahabad Safeda. OrissaJ. Hort., 27(2):62-65. 
Singh, PC, Gangwar, R.S. and Singh, V.K. 
(2012). Response of boron, zinc and copper on 
quality of Anola fruits cv. Banarasi, HortFlora 
Res. Sped, 1(1) : 89-91. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 284-285 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




Research Note : 

RESPONSE OF GIBBERELLIC ACID ON GROWTH BEHAVIOUR 
AND MENTHOL OIL YIELD OF MENTHA (Mentha piperita L.) 

Awadhesh Kumar, Hashim Mouzzam and Priyanka Singh 1 

Department of Botany, Dr, A. H. Rizvi Shia Degree College, Jaunpur-222 002 (U.P.) 
'Baldev P.G. College, Baragawn, Varanasi (U.P.) 

Keywords: GA 3 , mentha, trichome glands, menthol oil.. 



Mint {Mentha piperita L.) is a perennial herb 
of family Lamiaceae which is extensively grown as 
domestic medicinal herb as well as for commercial 
menthol oil production. Essential oils are the most 
important raw materials for fragrance and aroma 
industry. They are also used widely in the food and 
pharmaceutical industries due to their therapeutic, 
antimicrobial and anti-oxidant activities. As 
secondary metabolites groups, essential oil com- 
pounds play an important role in the plant's fitness 
under environmental fluctuations (Kapoor, 4). Plant 
growth hormones also play an important role in the 
regulation of growth and development of plants by 
affecting sink-source relationship (Marscher, 5). 
Exogenous application of growth promoters 
(gibberellic acid) exhibits positive metabolic 
activities under seasonal variations (Kapoor, 4). 
Keeping the views in mind, the present study was 
aimed to investigate response of GA 3 on growth 
behaviour and menthol oil contents in Mentha 
piperita L. under the influences of variable seasons. 

The present pot culture experiments were 
carried out in the Department of Botany, Dr. A.H. 
R.S. Degree College, Jaunpur during 2011 for two 
consecutive seasons i.e. winter (January-March) 
and summer (April-June) season (Table 1). 
Uniform suckers of mentha (American mint) were 
grown in nursery beds with whole care with 
appropriate supply of organic manures. Four weeks 
old nursery grown saplings were transplanted in 
suitable pots of 12 inch size. During each season 
(winter and summer), the pots containing soil and 
organic compost in 1:1 ratio were duly made for 
experimental purpose under suitable photoperiodic 
conditions. For each set of seasonal experiments, 
number of pot cultures of mint were maintained. 
All pots, replicated thrice, were treated by 
exogenous application (spray) of seven different 
successive concentrations (0, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 
100 ppm) of gibberellic acid. After 75 days of GA 3 
spray, in each season (winter and summer), 
observations on plant height, number of stolons and 
number of leaves per plant, leaf area, plant biomass 
and menthol oil contents were taken and average of 

Received: 8.4.2012 Revised : 28.5.2012 Accepted : 11.6.2012 



three replications was analysed statistically. Leaf 
area was measured by Leaf Area Meter and oil 
content in fresh herb was estimated by steam dis- 
tillation using Clevanger apparatus (Clevenger, 2). 

The investigation was projectd to examine the 
effect of growth stimulator (GA 3 ) on growth 
behaviour and essential oil (menthol) yielding 
capacity of Mentha piperita L. under the influences 
of different seasons (i.e. winter and summer). A 
perusal of data (Table 2) revealed that plant height 
of mentha was linearly increased with every 
increase in GA 3 concentration in both the seasons 
and it was observed maximum (81.25 cm and 78.51 
cm in winter and summer season, respectively) with 
100 ppm GA 3 spray followed by 75 ppm and 50 
ppm concentrations. In contrary to plant height, 
number of stolon branches per plant was decreased 
linearly with every increase in gibberellic acid 
concentration from to 100 ppm, where the highest 
numbers of stolon branches in winter (Ill/plant) 
and summer (39/plant) were recorded in control 
(untreated) plants. This also reveals that low 
temperature and short photoperiod favours the 
laterals growth of the plant confirming the findings 
of Clark and Menary (1). Number of leaves per 
plant was also influenced significantly by 
exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and 
maximum numbers of leaves per plant (294 in 
winter and 475 in summer) were observed by the 
spray of higher concentration (75-100 ppm) of 
GA 3 . Total leaf area per plant as well as dry biomass 
of plant were observed maximum with the 
application of lower concentration (25-50 ppm) of 
gibberellic acid. The higher biomass yield of mint 
plant of 8.87g in winter season and 10.84g in 
summer season was observed by the application of 
25 ppm and 75 ppm GA 3 , respectively. The findings 
are in consonance with Kapoor (4) and Garg et al. 
(3). Exogenous application of growth stimulator 
showed significant influences on menthol oil 
contents in different seasons. Spray of 75 ppm GA 3 
resulted in the highest menthol oil contents of 
0.85% and 1.94% in winter and summer season, 
respectively. As regard the seasonal variation is 
concerned, high temperature and long photoperiod 



Response of gerbera varietes against powdery mildew disease under polyhouse condition 



285 



Table 1: Meteorological data during the period of experimentation in two seasons i.e. winter and summer (2011). 



Months 


Week numbers 


Date 


Temperature (°C) 


Relative Humidity (%) 


Sunshine 
(hours) 






Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 




Jan-Feb 


2 


08-14 


21.8 


8.5 


91.8 


35.5 


6.8 


3 


15-23 


22.3 


8.8 


92.2 


35.9 


7.2 


4 


22-28 


23.6 


12.6 


91.4 


63.2 


6.5 


5 


29-04 


21.8 


11.5 


93.5 


67.5 


6.4 


Feb-March 


6 


05-11 


22.5 


9.4 


91.2 


43.5 


9.7 


7 


12-18 


25.7 


12.4 


91.5 


54.3 


9.5 


8 


19-25 


26.7 


11.4 


7.2 


33.6 


9.8 


9 


26-05 


27.8 


12.3 


81.9 


43.1 


7.6 


March-April 


10 


05-11 


24.6 


12.6 


85.2 


51.2 


7.2 


11 


12-18 


31.5 


14.0 


60.6 


32.8 


9.5 


12 


19-25 


32.7 


14.5 


65.0 


31.9 


9.7 


13 


26-01 


32.7 


19.5 


41.5 


24.2 


10.8 


April-May 


14 


02-08 


39.3 


20.0 


37.8 


14.5 


10.5 


15 


09-15 


38.9 


18.2 


41.5 


16.9 


10.8 


16 


16-22 


36.5 


21.2 


63.8 


32.5 


10.4 


17 


23-29 


40.7 


22.9 


45.5 


23.3 


10.9 



Table 2: Responses of Mentha piperita L. for growth and menthol oil yields at 
seasonal variation i.e. winter (W) and summer (S) season 2011. 


75 days after treatment as affected by GA3 and 


GA3, 
Treatments 


Height of 
plant (cm) 


No. of stolon 
branches/plant 


No. of leaves 
per plant 


Total leaf area per 
plant (cm2) 


Dry Biomass 
of plant (g) 


Menthol 
oil yield (%) 




W 


S 


W 


S 


W 


S 


W 


S 


W 


S 


W 


S 


ppm 


35.50 


41.16 


111 


39 


266 


345 


2855.50 


5574.35 


7.95 


10.25 


0.64 


1.24 


10 ppm 


47.55 


54.40 


102 


36 


275 


348 


3385.76 


5384.15 


8.30 


10.54 


0.73 


1.67 


15 ppm. 


50.75 


55.25 


109 


34 


279 


353 


3491.25 


5445.18 


8.45 


10.25 


0.75 


1.75 


25 ppm 


52.47 


75.21 


115 


35 


281 


382 


3592.55 


6292.37 


8.87 


10.75 


0.81 


1.85 


50 ppm 


65.33 


76.25 


105 


34 


289 


385 


3485.65 


6885.40 


8.35 


10.35 


0.74 


1.75 


75 ppm 


71.22 


78.53 


95 


33 


294 


395 


3383.21 


5595.35 


7.97 


10.84 


0.85 


1.94 


100 ppm 


78.51 


81.25 


88 


27 


287 


475 


2798.81 


4875.78 


7.66 


10.75 


0.79 


1.76 


CD. (P=0.05) 


0.55 


0.13 


1.07 


0.88 


1.68 


3.07 


0.64 


1.17 


0.03 


0.02 


0.01 


0.34 



treatment (summer season) is the most suitable 
environment for menthol oil production as 
compared to winter season (low temperature, short 
day). It concludes that long photoperiod treatment 
along with higher concentration of GA 3 favours 
more stimulation of menthol oil contents in the 
peltate glandular trichomes of plant body which 
also confirms the findings of Garg et al. (3). 

REFERENCES 

1. Clark, R.J. and Menary, R.C. (1980). 
Environmental effect on peppermint {Mentha 
piperita L.). I. Effect of day length, photoflux 
density, night and day temperature on the yield 
and composition of peppermint oil. Australian 
J. Plant Physio., 7: 685-692. 



Clevenger, J.F. (1928). Apparatus for 
determination of essential oil. J. Amer. Pharm. 
Assoc., 17:346. 

Garg, O.K., Hemantaranjan, A. and Gupta, R. C. 
(1985). Response of Japanese mint {Mentha 
arvensis L.) to gibberellic acid under inductive 
and non inductive day length condition. 
Abstracts-Symposium on medicinal and 
aromatic plants, Feb. 25-27, 1985, Mungpoo, 
Darjeeling. 

Kapoor, L. D. (1965). A preliminary study on 
the influence of gibberellic acid on Mentha 
arvensis L. The Proc. of Indian Academy of 
Science. XI (3): Sec. B. 

Marscher, H. (1986). Mineral Nutrition of 
Higher plants. Pp. 269-340. Academic Press, 
New York. 



HortFlora Research Spectrum, 1(3): 286-288 (2012) 



ISSN : 2250-2823 




Research Note : 

RESPONSE OF GERBERA VARIETIES AGAINST POWDERY MILDEW 
DISEASE UNDER POLYHOUSE CONDITION 

Sunil Kumar 1 , K.S. Tomar 2 and R.C. Shakywar 2 

Department of Floriculture, Department of Plant Protection, College of Horticulture and Forestry, 
Central Agricultural University, Pasighat-791 102, Arunachal Pradesh 
E-mail : sunul 59@yahoo.co.in 

Keywords: Gerbera, disease, powdery mildew, var 

Gerbera {Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. 
Hooker F.), belongs to the family Asteraceae, is a 
popular flower throughout the world. Many people 
enjoy growing this flower in gardens or large 
containers (Tjia et ah, 12). Its demand as cut flower 
and also as an ornamental potted plant gaining 
importance in the world market and has a very good 
export potential because of its graceful appearance, 
hardiness and ability to withstand during 
transportation and long shelf life (Latha and 
Suresh, 8). The tremendous variability in gerbera 
with reference to flower colour, shape and size 
makes it more useful for cut flowers, bouquet, 
decoration in marriage and landscaping in 
gardening (Aswath and Survay, 2). Apart from 
domestic consumption it has got export potential 
also. Claims have been made that from 30-70 % of 
the potential lasting quality of cut flowers is 
determined at harvest (Halevy and Mayak, 5). In 
India, gerbera is mainly grown in North Eastern 
States, Karnataka and Maharashtra (Aswath and 
Rao, 1). Gerbera is susceptible to a variety of pests 
and diseases. Powdery mildew is one of the most 
destructive fungal diseases of gerbera causing 
significant economic losses under poly house 
conditions. It is caused by two fungal species viz. 
Erysiphe cichoracearum DC and Sphaerotheca 
fusca (Fr.) (Beaura et al, 3). They are the obligate 
parasites and can affect all parts of the plants. 
Powdery mildew is easy to identify since to 
noticeable white spots or powder like appearance or 
white patches appear on the upper and lower 
surfaces of the leaves or flowers. These spots are 
enlarge to form a white, powder like mat, which can 
spread to stems and flowers also (Moyer and Peres, 



iety, PDI. 

9). Severely infected leaves turn pale yellow or 
brown and the plants eventually die. Some 
environmental conditions are most congenial for 
powdery mildew development includes high 
relative humidity (80-95 %), moderate temperature 
(20-28 °C) and low light intensities or shade. 
Unfortunately poly house usually provide all these 
condition and the varieties will react specifically. 
Therefore information on the varieties showing 
resistant reaction to powdery mildew is meagre. 
Therefore, in the present study, nine gerbera 
varieties were screened for their reaction against 
powdery mildew disease under poly house 
condition. 

Screening trial was conducted at Instructional 
farm, Department of Floriculture, College of 
Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural 
University, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh during 
April 2011 to March 2012. Nine varieties of tissue 
culture derived gerbera viz. Figaro, Galileo, 
Manizales, Marinila, Palmira, Pia, Rionegro, 
Tecala and Teresa were planted in the raised beds 
with a spacing of 30 x 30 cm under polyhouse 
condition. The plants were provided with all the 
inputs as per package and practices for gerbera 
cultivation. This experiment was laid out in 
complementary randomized design and replicated 
thrice with 20 plants for each replication. Powdery 
mildew was developed from the natural inoculums. 
Observations on symptoms of powdery mildew 
were recorded at 40 days interval upto 5 months 
(Approximate 160 days) of planting and 10 plants 
per replication were selected randomly for disease 
assessment. 

Disease severity was recorded on the upper 



Received: 20.5.2012 



Accepted: 01.6.2012 



Response of gerbera varieties against powdery mildew disease under polyhouse condition 



287 



Table 1: Reaction of gerbera 


varieties against powdery 


mildew during April 2011 to March 2012. 


Varieties 


Per cent disease index* 


Disease 
reaction 


Number of 

flowers m" 2 / 

year 


Number of 

sucker / 
plant / year 


40 DAP 


80 DAP 


120 DAP 


160 DAP 


Figaro 


0.0 


3.93 


6.53 


9.73 


R 


143.00 


3.80 


Galileo 


16.67 


24.90 


28.57 


34.73 


S 


189.00 


5.80 


Manizales 


12.50 


16.90 


31.33 


46.93 


S 


137.20 


3.20 


Marinila 


0.0 


2.93 


7.23 


10.27 


R 


106.60 


4.00 


Palmira 


0.0 


1.57 


6.50 


9.27 


R 


190.00 


5.40 


Pia 


23.77 


33.27 


55.00 


65.30 


HS 


102.00 


4.20 


Rionegro 


21.33 


29.30 


36.70 


49.67 


S 


180.00 


5.30 


Tecala 


19.33 


31.00 


44.93 


54.27 


HS 


178.00 


5.00 


Teresa 


10.33 


15.67 


20.77 


24.57 


MR 


125.00 


4.00 



*Mean of three replications 
DAP = Days after Planting 



leaf surfaces at the earlier growth stages and at the 
later stages on the lower leaves also and rated on a 
to 6 scale (Standard disease severity scale) as = 
No powdery growth, 1= 1-20% of the leaf area with 
powdery growth, 2 = 21 -40% of the leaf area with 
powdery growth, 3 = 41 -60% of the leaf area with 
powdery growth, 4 = 61-80% of the leaf area with 
powdery growth, 5 = 81 -99% of the leaf area with 
powdery growth and 6 = 100 % of the leaf area with 
powdery growth (Moyer and Peres, 9). Using the 
standard disease score chart, the per cent disease 
index (PDI) was worked out according to the FAO 
(4) formula and the data were analysed statistically. 



Per cent disease index (PDI) = 

Sum of total numerical rating 
Total number of observations x Maximum grade 



xlOO 



From the PDI calculated, the reaction of the 
varieties were categorized as 0% PDI = Immune to 
powdery mildew, 5% PDI = Highly Resistant (HR), 
5-10% = Resistant (R), 11-25% = Moderately 
Resistant (MR), 25-50% = Susceptible (S) and 
51-100% = Highly Susceptible (HS). 

The results obtained (Table 1) clearly showed 
that all the varieties were differing to each other for 
disease incidence. Nine varieties of gerbera were 
screened against powdery mildew under polyhouse 
condition. Powdery mildew symptoms were first 
observed on the leaves of the varieties viz. Pia, 



Rionegro and Tecala on 30 days after planting. On 
Manizales, Teresa and Galileo powdery mildew 
incidence started only after 38 days of planting. On 
the other varieties Figaro, Marinila and Palmira 
powdery mildew incidence started only after 68 
days of planting. Palmira variety showed resistance 
to powdery mildew with per cent disease index of 
9.27% at the end of 160 days after planting 
followed by Figaro and Marinila with PDI of 9.73% 
and 10.23%, respectively. Variety Teresa showed 
moderately resistant reaction 24.57% against 
powdery mildew infection. Varieties Pia and Tecala 
were highly susceptible to powdery mildew 
throughout the experiment which showed per cent 
disease index of 65.30% and 54.27%, respectively. 
Other varieties like Galileo (34.73%), Manizales 
(46.93%) and Rionegro (49.67%) showed 
susceptible reaction to powdery mildew infection. 
These findings are closely supported by (Jamadar et 
ah, 6) for disease resistance in grapevine genotypes 
to powdery mildew infection and Sharma and 
Sharma (11) and in lady's ringer to yellow vein 
mosaic virus (YVMV). To overcome economic 
losses due to disease and avoid repeated application 
of fungicide, development of resistant variety is the 
best method for disease management. Evaluation 
procedure in the green house could be used as a 
rapid assay to screen plants for resistance (Scholten 
et ah, 10). Screening could be important in the 



288 



Kumar et al. 



development and evaluation of new resistant 
cultivar if incorporated into breeding programmes 
(Kozik, 7). Through the study, powdery mildew 
resistant screening methodology for gerbera under 
polyhouse condition has been established and few 
resistant varieties of gerbera against powdery 
mildew were indentified. Those varieties may be 
utilized for future breeding programme to evolve 
powdery mildew disease resistant gerbera varieties. 

REFERENCES 

1. Aswath, C. and Rao, T. Manjunath (2006). 
Breeding of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus 
ex. Hooker F.) lines suitable for open field 
cultivation. J. Orna. Hort, 9(4): 243-247. 

2. Aswath, C. and Survay, Nazneen (2004). An 
improved method for in vitro propagation of 
gerbera. J. Orna. Hort., 7(2): 141-146. 

3. Beaura, S. Singh, R. Daughtrey, M. Wick, R. L. 
and Peterson, J. L. (1995). Compendium of 
flowering potted plant diseases. APS Press, St. 
Paul, MN. 

4. FAO (1967). Crop losses due to diseases and 
pest. Rome: Food and Agricultural 
Organization. 

5. Halevy, A.H. andMayak, S. (1981). Sensecense 
and post harvest physiology of cut flowers-Part 
H. Hortic. Rev. 3: 59-143. 



New Release. 



i. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



Jamadar, M.M., Jawadagi, R.S. and Patil, D.R. 

(2007). Nursery screening of grapevine 

genotypes to powdery mildew infection. J. 

Asian Hort., 4: 69-70. 

Kozik, E.V. (1999). Evaluation of two 

techniques for screening tomatoes for resistance 

to Fusarium crown and root rot. Vege. Crop Res. 

Bull, 50: 5-12. 

Latha, T.K.S. and Suresh, J. (20 10). Varietal 

screening of gerbera for their response to 

powdery mildew disease. J. Orna. Hort, 13 (2): 

157-159. 

Moyer, C. and Peres, N. A. (2008). Evaluation 

of bio-fungicides for conttol of powdery 

mildew of gerbera daisy. Proc. of Florida State 

Hortic. Soc., 121: 389-394. 

Scholten, O.E., Panella, L.W., Bock, T.S.M. and 

De Lange, W. (2001). A green house test for 

screening sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) for 

resistance to Rhizoctonia solani. European J. 

Plant Patho., 107: 161-166. 

Tjia, B., R J. Black and S. Park-Brown (2008). 

Gerberas for Florida. CIR527. Gainesville: 

University of Florida Institute of Food and 

Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas. 

ufl.edu/mg 034. 

Sharma, B.R. and Sharma, O.P (1984). Field 

evaluation of okra germplasm against YVMV. 

Punjab Hort. J., 24: 131-133. 



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